• Dr. Gopal Sankhala

    Dr. Gopal Sankhala
    Principal Scientist

    Dairy Extension, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001 Haryana India Telephone No.:0184-2259220(o)

    • Current Research Area
      Dairy Extension Education—Impacts studies on Various Programmes,Consumers surveys and pilot level testing of Health Foods, Action Research, Indigenous Technical Knowledge(ITK),Group dynamics & approaches


    • M.Sc(Agricultural Extension Education)
    • Ph.D (Dairy Extension Education)

    Major Research Accomplishments

    Technology assessment and refinement through institution village linkage programme (TAR/IVLP) under irrigated Agro-Ecosystem and paddy-wheat and dairy production”.

    The salient achievements of the project are as under: –
    • Feeding of mineral mixture@ 60 gm (caltos ADBTM) for two months increased the milk yield up to 15%. Ninety percent animals given mineral mixture conceived within the 3 months of the treatment and also helped in reducing the problem of anoestrous and repeat breeding
    • The feeding of urea enriched wheat straw resulted in increasing the palatability of the straw (30-35%) and increase in milk production (average0.8 kg in cow and 0.6 kg in buffaloes). The cost of treatment of straw was Rs. 30/ quintal. This technique has potential to save concentrate up to 1 kg/ animal/day.
    • Improved varieties of berseem were assessed for green fodder yield. Results indicated that BL-22 and BL-10 recorded average green fodder yield of 988 and 968q/ha, respectively and produced an increased green yield of 222 and 202q/ha over farmers practice of growing traditional Maskavi variety.
    • Wheat varieties assessed under salt affected areas where ground water is brackish indicated that variety KRL-19 gave higher yield (41.4q/ha) than farmers’ practice (37.9q/ha), which includes variety Pbw-343.
    • As paddy- wheat rotation is being followed continuously, wheat sowing is delayed due to late harvesting of Basmati rice or Second crop of paddy. It is estimated that yield decrease @ 30kg/ha/day when wheat sowing is delayed beyond 25th November. To save the time in preparation of the field before sowing of wheat, adoption of zero tillage is found beneficial.

    Current status of dairy farming in different agro climatic zones- an Extension perspective”.
    • To document the existing dairy husbandry practices and ITKs in different agro-climatic Zones.
    • To study the dairy production patterns.
    • To map the current status of feed and fodder resources of dairy farmers.
    • To suggest intervention modules for sustainable milk production.

    Progress report
    The present study was conducted in five agro-climatic zones of India, namely, Lower Gangetic Plain Region. Upper Gangetic Plain Region, West Coast Plains and Ghat Region, Western Dry Region, and Western Plateau Region. Out of these selected 5 zones 15 districts were selected (3 from each zone). Thus a multistage sampling technique was applied in the selection of districts, villages and respondents.   In this way 900 respondents were interviewed who has at least one milch cattle or buffalo. The present study revealed that dairy practices adopted by farmers in these five agro-climatic zones would be useful to understand the diversity & complexity of the practices. Dehorning was adopted by only 8 per cent respondents. Farmers had moderately good knowledge of heat symptoms and time of insemination. Only 23 per cent farmers adopted A.I. in cattle and less then 10 per cent in buffaloes. P.D. was adopted by 38 per cent respondents. Mineral mixture is rarely fed to animals and 54 per cent of respondents provide clean water to animals. Vaccination to animals was adopted by 45 per cent farmers. ITK is used in all the zones by the cattle owners and some were very effective. Major fodder crops were Wheat bhusha, Paddy straw, Jawar, Bajra as dry fodder and their portion in dry fodder is 32 per cent and wheat straw is 20 per cent. The average lactation yield in cows (desi) was lowest i.e. 650 litres followed by buffaloes i.e. 850 litres and 1712 litres in Cross-Bred cows. Dry period was longer than 6 to 7 months in Desi Cows and Buffaloes. Age of Maturity was 4 years in Buffaloes whereas in only 2 years in Cross-Breed cows. Repeat Breeding was a major problem of Dairy Farmers. In Upper Gangetic Plain Region zone green fodder was available consequently, the milk yield was good than other zones. In Lower Gangetic Plain Region and Western Dry Region green fodder scarcity was observed and milk production of local breed was low. In Western Plateau Region a sizeable number of crossbreed were reared by the farming community although the availability of green fodder is erratic but over all milk production of that zone was comparatively high. Finally, in West Coast Plains and Ghat Region, milk production of local breed i.e. Pandhapuri was low and availability of green fodder was also low. So, it is concluded that there was no significant difference between the Upper Gangetic Plain Region and Western Dry Region in respect of milk yield remaining zones had low milk productivity of the animals. The indigenous technologies documented during this study could be further used for the scientific validation and participatory technology development.
    • In zone-5 green fodder was available as result the milk yield was good than other zones
    • In the zone-3 Green fodder scarcity was observed, Milk production of  local animal breed was low
    • In zone –14 Green fodder scarcity  was observed, but Milk production of  local animal was high
    • In zone –10 A sizeable number of crossbreed were reared by the farming community although the availability of green fodder in erratic but over all milk production of that zone was comparatively high
    • In zone -12 Milk production of  local breed i.e. Pandhapuri was low  and availability of green fodder is also low

    Finally it was concluded that there was no significant difference between the zone 5 and 14 in respect of milk yield remaining zones had low milk productivity of the animals

     Mobilization for group actions for Socio-Economic Development in Model Village –   An action research
    • To study the Socio-economic, situational and environmental factors to determine the area in which group actions are desirable and feasible.
    • To determine the psychological and physical inputs required to mobilize the village for group actions.
    • To carry out the actions and to document the process undergone during implementation of the research projects and to make future action propositions.

    Research Findings:

    •  There were few cross bred animals in the village and others were non-descriptive animals.
    •  The identified problems regarding animal health and breeding in the project village through the PRA tools were: poor genetic potentials of animals, animals are severely malnourished, severe occurrence of breeding problems (anoestrus & repeat breeding), , heavy infestation with ecto and endo parasites and occurrence of F.M.D and H.S.
    •  Based on the identified problems in the village, various technological interventions like mineral supplementation, balanced feeding & concentrate preparation, feeding of urea treated fodder, on farm trials on improved fodder varieties of Berseem, Oats and Sorghum were introduced.
    •  Group discussions were held to have interaction with the farmers and make them aware about the different activities of the project. During the discussion farmers were made aware about scientific dairy farming to enhance the milk productivity and income. Literature was supplied to the farmers during the visit to the project village.
    •  Only 14% farmers vaccinated their animals regularly against F.M.D & H.S while 35% farmers were vaccinated their animals occasionally.
    •  Deworming practices in cows were adopted by only 24.5 percent farmers. Remaining farmers either did not follow the practice or followed it only occasionally.
    •  Only 43 percent farmers have the required skill for heat detection (symptoms and time of insemination etc.) in the project village.
    •  Very few farmers (10 percent) were practicing AI in cows regularly while about 30 percent followed the practice occasionally. There were very few cases of AI in buffalo. After the implementation of the project this percentage increased by about 10%.
    •  Farmers were not aware about the treatment of straw before the introduction of the project. Treatment of wheat Bhusa with urea was demonstrated to the farmers; however, not a single farmer adopted/ repeated the urea treatment of wheat bhusa because it is a cumbersome and more laborious.
    •  Further it was also found that only 20% farmers were having awareness about the feeding of mineral mixture to their animals. There were only 7% farmers were feeding mineral mixture to their animals before the start of the project. Later on, the percentage of farmers increased from 7% to15%.
    •  Farmers of project area have started to prepare the concentrate with the available local resources after providing the appropriate knowledge through group discussion followed by method demonstration.
    •  A group has been formed in the village. This Group has an account in the bank to deposit their savings. This group has started to purchase the inputs & other items in wholesale e.g. Cattle feed, Mineral mixture, dewormer and tick control.


    Strategic Nutrient Supplementation for Enhancing Milk & Reproductive Performance in Dairy Animals under Field Conditions-An Action Research

    Survey was conducted on farmers in five villages in Karnal district namely, Shubri, Mazra, Khera, Chhapra and Rasulpur. Feed and fodder samples from selected farmers were collected and have been analysed for chemical constituents such as CP, EE, NDF, ADF, Total ash, Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Cu. The nutrient intakes by each category of cattle & buffaloes were calculated and deficiency in energy intake of buffaloes & cows yielding 10-12 litre milk and more than 15 liter milk was observed as depicted in the under mentioned tables. On the basis of the feeding schedule being followed by individual farmer, total 38 high yielding buffaloes and cattle were selected and supplemented 250-300g/h/d bypass fat and mineral mixture 45 days prepartum. Observations have been recorded for the calving performance, reproductive performance and milk yield of these animals. The data is being statistically being analyzed. There was significant improvement in the body condition score of animals and milk production by feeding of bypass fat and mineral mixture as compared to control animals and previous lactation also.

    Guidance to student:



    • Young Scientist Award -2005 for his out standing contributions performed in the field of Extension Education by the Society of Extension Education, Agra
    • The Best paper presentation award” for their article entitled “Women Self Help Group Dynamics in Dairying”
    • TAR/IVLP team first prize award for poster presentation during the National Symposium (NATP) on an enhancing productivity and sustainability in irrigated agro eco system on 28-29 May, 2004 at Karnal.
    • Awarded FIRST PRIZE in the POSTER PRADARSHINI based on Research Projects PRTIYOGITA, held at NDRI, Karnal
    • Awarded FIRST PRIZE in the PRASHNA MANCH PRTIYOGITA, held at NDRI, Karnal
    • Participated in Rajbhasha pakhwada on 14th Sept. 2001 and took part in competetion of Rajbhasha Gyan and won the third prize.
    • Participated in Rajbhasha pakhwada from 14th Sept. 2000 and took part in competition of Rajbhasha Gyan and won the Second prize.
    • Participated in Rajbhasha pakhwada from 14th Sept. 1999 and took part in following competitions-(i) Rajbhasha Gyan (ii) Essay(iii) Uchit Shabd Kya Hai and won the first prize in Rajbhasha Gyan .


    • Foundation course for Agri.Reseach and Management at NAARM,Hyderabad.
    • Subject matter specialist traning at IARI, New Delhi.
    • Methodologies for Extension Research /Technique in Extension Research at PAU, Ludhiana From July 1-21,1998.
    • Media production skills for development support communication at G.B. Pant Univ.of Agri.and Tech. Pantnagar, June 10-30, 1999.
    • Participated in the course on creative writing in agricultural “From 5 October to 9 October, 2009 at Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi.
    • Participated in the Programme on Priority setting monitoring and evaluation for innovation in Agricultural which was held during October 19-23,2009 at Indian Institute of Management Luck now

    Patents, Technology, Methodology, Genetic Stock, Variety, etc.:

    • Attitude of dairy farmers towards training programmes
    • Attitude of consumers towards health Foods
    • Attitude of beneficiaries towards IVLP/TAR Programmes
    • Attitude of beneficiaries towards DPIP Programmes
    • Knowledge test on Tribal dairy farmers.


    • Sankhala, G.and Sharma, B.M. “Role performance of Farmwomen in agriculture and dairy husbandry: an analysis.”Rajasthan J. of Extension Education.No.8&9 pp10-13.
    • Sankhala, G. and Ram Chand “Socio-economic Profile of the Tribal Dairy Farmers in Rajasthan.” Haryana Economic Journal, Vo.XXI No.1-2 pp118-122
    • Sankhala, G. et.al. “Level of knowledge and adoption of dairy husbandry practices by dairy farmers”. Indian J. of Animal Prodn. & Mgnt. Vol.16 (1&2) pp36-39.
    • Jha, S.K., Sankhala, G. Ram Chand, Meena, B. S. and Jha, S. K. “Extension Exposure via-a-vis Inquisitiveness of Dairy Farmers apropos Innovations.”Indian J. of Animal Prodn. & Mgnt. Vol.16 (3) pp 107-110.
    • Sankhala, G. and Ram Chand “Knowledge status of tribal towards improved dairy farming practices” Rajasthan J. of Extension Education, No.7 pp 69-72.
    • Sankhala, G. et.al. “Expected role and role performed by the Farm Women in agriculture and dairying activities”. Indian J. Agric.Res.33 (2); pp 73-79.
    • Sankhala, G. and Ram Chand “Assessment of training needs of tribal dairy farmers”. J. Dairying, foods & home Sci. 17(2); pp99-105.
    • Sankhala, G. and Ram Chand “Constraints perceived by tribal dairy farmers and Organizers in Training Programmes” J. Dairying, foods & home Sci. 17(1); pp49-53.
    • Sankhala, G. and Ram Chand “Attitude of tribal farmers towards improved Dairy Farming practices” Indian J. of Animal Prodn. & Mgnt. Vol.14 (2) April-June.
    • Kumar, R.; Fulzele, R. M., Agarwal, S. B. and Sankhala, G. “Adoption rate and Extent of knowledge of dairy farmers regarding scientific dairy farming practices”. J. Dairying, foods & home Sci. 20(2) pp119-122.