Dr. Rajan Sharma
Dr. Rajan Sharma
Dairy Chemistry Division National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, Haryana, INDIA.
Email: Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, Rajan.Sharma@icar.gov.in
Current Research Area
Method validation, Biosensor, Enzymes, Vitamins and Milk fat, Detection of adulteration in milk and milk products, Aptamer based method for detection of adulteration, characteristics of vitamin binding proteins, Lateral Flow
- MSc. Dairy Chemistry
- PhD. Dairy Chemistry
- Post-Graduate Diploma in Technology Management in Agriculture (PGD-TMA)
Major Research Accomplishments
A. A Rapid Test for Detection of ‘Synthetic milk’ developed
B. Tests for Detection of Adulteration of Milk with Soymilk developed
C. A Rapid Test for Detection of Adulteration of Ghee with Vegetable Oils developed
D. A Method for the Estimation of Urea using Ammonia Electrode Developed
E. An enzymatic method for Estimation of Maltodextrin in Milk developed
F. Two simple colour based methods for ascertaining the heat treatment of milk around 80°C have been developed.
- Erasmus Mundus Visiting Professor scholarship for one Month (2012) from Sefotech.nut, Belgium for Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland funded by Erasmus Mundus Programme, Gent, Belgium.
- Fellow of National Academy of Dairy Science (India)
- NRDC Meritorious Invention Award – 2013 for the innovation/invention “test for detection of detergent in milk” by National Research Development Corporation
- Indo-US Norman E. Borlaug International Agricultural Science & Technology Fellows Program (2007-08) of USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service, USA under Indo-US Agricultural Knowledge Initiative
- Khorana Program –Technology Transfer Course” awarded and sponsored by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Govt of India, conducted by University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), USA in partnership with and the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF) during July 20, 2013 to August 3, 2013
- Certificate of Appreciation for outstanding contribution in teaching: On the recommendation of NDRI Academic Council, Certificate of Appreciation was awarded in recognition of Outstanding Contributions as a teacher at NDRI for the year 2013-14 at 12th Convocation held on February, 2014
- Certificate of Appreciation for outstanding contribution in teaching: On the recommendation of NDRI Academic Council, Certificate of Appreciation was awarded in recognition of Outstanding Contributions as a teacher at NDRI for the year 2012-13 at 11th Convocation held on February, 2013
- Certificate of appreciation by Director, NDRI dated 29.07.2006 for developing a simple tests for detection of Synthetic Milk
- Certificate of appreciation by Board of Management for awarding “Best Master’s Thesis Award” to Master Student who completed his Master Degree under my Guidance dated 15.02.2013
- Received Low Cost Technology Development Award –2016 from Association of Food Scientist & Technologies (India), Mysore for Paper strip based tests for detection of adulteration in milk in November 2017.
- Conferred the Fellowship of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS) by National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi on 01st January 2018.
- Microfiltration and high pressure processing of milk to produce shelf-stable milk at Department of Food Science at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA from March 14 to April 26, 2008
- High pressure processing of milk at Department of Food Science, Ohio State University. Columbus, USA from April 15-18, 2008.
- National Workshop on Immobilized Enzyme Technology for Sensor (NWIETS)-2007) August 24-Sept. 2, 2007 Maharishi Dayanand University Rohtak
- National Training Programme on “Recent Advances in “Expression Genomic Techniques” February 20 to March 10, 2007 Animal Biotechnology Center, NDRI, Karnal
- Statistical and Graphical Analysis using MS-Excel July 12 -13, 2005 Computer Center, NDRI, Karnal
- Training course for GLP (Good Laboratory Practices) Inspectors September 19-23, 2005 National GLP Compliance Monitoring Authority, DST, New Delhi
- Laboratory Assessor Training Course 24-28 March 2003 Indian Institute of Quality Management (IIQM), Jaipur
- Advances in fat rich dairy products 5th February to 6th March 2002 Centre of Advance Studies, Dairy Technology Department, NDRI, Karnal.
- Summer School on Application of Enzymes in Dairy Products 29/07/01 to 18/08/01 University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
Patents, Technology, Methodology, Genetic Stock, Variety, etc.:
- Patents Granted – 01 Patents File: 08
- A kit for detection of detergent in milk (Patent granted on 14.01.2015; Patent No. 264661). Inventors: Y.S. Rajput, Rajan Sharma and Sumandeep Kaur
- A kit for detection of adulteration of milk with soya milk (Patent granted on 08/09/2016; Patent No. 275521); Inventors: Y.S. Rajput, Rajan Sharma and Poonam
- A qualitative and quantitative test for detection of anionic detergent in milk and like (3677/DEL/2011 dated 16.12.2011); Inventors: Amit K. Barui, Rajan Sharma and Y.S. Rajput
- Aptamers specific for aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin B1 (1864/DEL/2013 dated 25.06.2013); Inventors: Shilpi Malhotra, Y.S. Rajput and Rajan Sharma
- A strip for detection of added urea in milk and process for the same (3472/DEL/2013 dated 29.11.2013); Inventors: Rajan Sharma, Panchal Bhavesh Kumar and Y.S. Rajput
- Aptamer specific for betacasomorphin 7 (BCM 7) (3703/DEL/2013 dated 18.12.2013); Inventors: Y.S. Rajput, Abhishek and Rajan Sharma
- A strip for detection of maltodextrin in milk and process for the same (2097/DEL/2014 dated 24.07.2014); Inventors: Rajan Sharma, Y.S. Rajput, Bimlesh Mann, Prerna Narula, Rahul Thakur and Brajesh Kumar
- A strip based test for detection of detergent in milk (750/DEL/2015 dated 19.03.2015); Inventors: Y.S. Rajput, Gulab Singh and Rajan Sharma
- Aptamers specific for cefquinome (1775/DEL/2015 dated 15.06.2015); Inventors: Rajan Sharma, Amit Kumar Barui, Y.S. Rajput, Bimlesh Mann
- Antimicrobial nanoemulsion of clove oil stabilized with milk protein and a process thereof (913/DEL/2015 dated 31.03.2015. Bimlesh Mann, Minaxi, Rajan Sharma and Rajesh Kumar
- Oil in water curcumin nanoemulsion and method of preparation thereof (201611018434 dated 30.05.2016) Bimlesh Mann, Pooja, Ramesh Pothuraju, Rajan Sharma and Rajesh Kumar
- Caseinophosphopeptide-divalent metal (Iron/Zinc) nanocomplex and method of preparation thereof (201711010975 dated 28.03.2017) Bimlesh Mann, Prabin Sarkar, Rajan Sharma, Rajesh Kumar and Munmun Sen
- A crosslinked membrane with flow-line capable of arresting free-flowing gold nanoparticles and the process for the same (201711036404 dated 13.10.2017) Y.S. Rajput, Dhiraj Kumar Nanda and Rajan Sharma
- 1. Kumar, M.; Panjagari, N.R.; Kanade, P.K.; Singh, A.K.; Badola, R.; Ganguli, S.; Behare, P.V.; Sharma, R. and Alam, T. (2018) Sodium caseinate-starch-modified montmorillonite based biodegradable film: Laboratory food extruder assisted exfoliation and characterization. Food Packaging and Shelf Life. 15: 17-27
- 2. Pandey, A.K.; Rajput, Y.S.; Sharma R. and Singh, D. (2017) Immobilized aptamer on gold electrode senses trace amount of aflatoxin M1. Applied Nanoscience. DOI: 10.1007/s13204-017-0629-0
- 3. Gahlaut, J.; Rajput, Y.S.; Meena, S.; Nanda, D.K. and Sharma, R. (2017). Spectrophotometric label-free determination of lead using thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles. Analytical Letters. doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2017.1373285
- 4. Gautam, P.B., Sharma, R., Lata, K., Rajput, Y.S. and Mann, B. (2017) Construction of a lateral flow strip for detection of soymilk in milk. Journal of Food Science and Technology, DOI 10.1007/s13197-017-2890-3.
- 5. Dhankhar, J.; Sharma, R. and Mann, B. (2017) Optimization of various steps for RP-HPLC determination of carotene in milk fat. International Food Research Journal. 24(4): 1393-1398.
- 6. Pandey, A.K.; Rajput, Y.S. Singh, D. and Sharma, R. (2017) Prediction of shorter oligonucleotide sequences recognizing aflatoxin M1. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry.DOI: 10.1002/bab.1586.
- 7. Narwal, V.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S.; Mann, B. (2017) Applicability of protein estimation methods for assaying glycomacropeptide. International Journal of Dairy Technology. Doi.1111/1471-0307.12452
- 8. Sharma, M.; Mann, B.; Sharma, R.; Bajaj, R.; Athira, S.; Sarkar, P. and Pothurahu, R. (2017) Sodium caseinate stabilized clove oil nanoemulsion: Physicochemical properties. Journal of Food Engineering. DOI. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.05.006
- 9. Aggarwal, S.; Rajput, Y.S.; Sharma, R. and Pandey, A.K. (2017) Extraction of Cefquinome from Food by Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymer. PharmaceuticaAnalyticaActa, 10.4172/2153-2435.1000527
- 10. Meena, G.S.; Singh, A.K.; Arora, S. Borad, S.; Sharma, R. and Gupta, V.K. (2017) Physico-chemical, functional and rheological properties of milk protein concentrate 60 as affected by disodium phosphate addition, diafiltration and homogenization. Journal of Food Science and Technology, DOI 10.1007/s13197-017-2600-1
- 11. Lata, K.; Naik, L.; Sharma, R.; Jaiswal, A.; Mann, B. and Rajput, Y.S. (2017) Development of competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of cephalexin in milk. Indian Journal of Dairy Science, 70(1): 72-80.
- 12. Naik, L., Sharma, R., Mann, B., Lata, K., Rajput, Y.S. and Nath, B.S., 2017. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay. Food Chemistry, 219, pp.85-92.
- 13. Rawat, P.; Rajput, Y.S.; Bharti, M.K. and Sharma, R. (2016) A method for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using 1-amino-2-naphthol-4-sulphonic acid as reducing agent. Current Science. 110 (12): 2297- 2300. NAAS rating : 6.93
- 14. Kumar, D.D., Mann, B., Pothuraju, R., Sharma, R. and Bajaj, R., (2016). Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream. Food & Function, 7: 417-424. Impact Factor: 2.791;NAAS rating: 6+2.791 = 8.791
- 15. Singh, S.; Rajput, Y.S.; Barui, A.K.; Sharma, R. and Datta, T.K. (2016) Fat accumulation in differentiated brown adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes. Gene Expression Patterns.doi:10.1016/j.gep.2016.01.002. Impact Factor: 1.380; NAAS rating: 6+1.380 = 7.380
- 16. Meena, S.; Rajput, Y.S.; Pandy, A.K.; Sharma, R. and Singh, R. (2016) Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Journal of Dairy Research. 83 (3) 412-419.
- 17. Padghan, P.V., Mann, B., Sharma, R., Bajaj, R. and Saini, P. (2017) Production of Angiotensin-I-Converting-Enzyme-Inhibitory Peptides in Fermented Milks (Lassi) Fermented by Lactobacillus acidophillus with Consideration of Incubation Period and Simmering Treatment. International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics, 23(1): 69-79
- 18. Kumar, B.; Sharma, R.; Thakur, R.; Barui, A.K.; Rajput, Y.S. and Mann, B. (2016) Rapid enzymatic assay for lactate content in milk – an indirect method to ascertain the presence of neutralizers in microbial deteriorated milk. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 69(3): 460-467
- 19. Lata, K.; Sharma, R.; Naik, L.; Rajput, Y.S. and Mann, B. (2016) Lateral flow assay based rapid detection of cephalexin in milk. Journal of Food Quality. 39 (1): 64-73. DOI: 10.1111/jfq.12175
- 20. Singh, S.; Rajput, Y.S.; Barui, A.K.; Sharma, R. and Grover, S. (2015) Expression of developmental genes in brown fat cells grown in vitro is linked with lipid accumulation. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology – Animal. DOI 10.1007/s11626-015-9930-y 51(10), 1003-1011
- 21. Prashar, A.; Rajput, Y.S. and Sharma, R. (2015) Aptamer based sensing of betacasomorphin-7. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.5b00007
- 22. Lata, K.; Sharma, R.; Naik, L. Rajput, Y.S. Mann, B. (2015) Synthesis and application of cephalexin imprinted polymer for solid phase extraction in milk. Food Chemistry. 184: 176-182
- 23. Aggarwal, S.; Rajput, Y.S.; Singh, G and Sharma, R. (2015) Synthesis and characterization of oxytetracycline imprinted magnetic polymer for application in food. Applied Nanoscience. 6: 209–214.
- 24. Athira, S.; Mann, B.; Saini, P.; Sharma, R. Kumar, R. and Singh, A.K. (2015) Production and characterization of whey protein hydrolysate having antioxidant activity from cheese whey. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.7032.95 (14): 2908–2915.
- 25. Divya, M.P.; Rajput, Y.S.; Sharma, R. and Singh, G. (2015) Molecular imprinted polymer for separation of lactate. Journal of Analytical Chemistry. DOI 10.1007/s13204-015-0437-3.70(10), 1213-1217. 70(10): 1213–1217. NAAS rating : 6.48
- 26. Malhotra, S., Pandey, A.K., Rajput, Y.S., Sharma, R. (2014) Selection of aptamers for aflatoxin M1 and their characterization. Journal of Molecular Recognition. 27 (8): 493-500.
- 27. Mann, B..; Kumari, A.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, R.; Prajapati, K.; Mahboob, S. and Athira, S. (2014) Antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates in milk beverage system. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52 (6): 3235-3241.
- 28. Athira, S.; Mann, B.; Sharma, R.; and Bajaj, R. (2014) Process optimization for production of whey protein hydrolysate from cheese whey having antioxidant property. Journal of Animal Science. Vol. 92, E-Suppl. 2/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 97, E-Suppl. 1.
- 29. Sari, T.P.; Mann, B.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R.R.B.; Sharma, R.; Bhardwaj, M.; Athira, S. (2014) Preparation and characterization of nanoemulsion encapsulating curcumin. Food Hydrocolloids. 43 (1): 540–546.
- 30. Padghan P.V.; Mann, B.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, R. and Kumar, A. (2014) Studies on bio-functional activity of traditional Lassi. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge.14 (1) 124-131.
- 31. Lata, K.; Jaiswal, A.K.; Naik, L and Sharma, R. (2014) Gold nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and its stability in buffer. Nano Trends: A Journal of Nanotechnology & its Applications. 17: (1): 1-10
- 32. Naik, L. Lata, K.; Sharma, R.; Mann, B. and Rajput, Y.S. (2014) Production of Polyclonal Antibody for Oxytetracycline and their use in Lateral Flow Assay. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Biotechnology. 1 (2): 8-17
- 33. Meena, S.; Rajput, Y.S. and Sharma, R. (2014) Comparative fat digestibility of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk. International Dairy Journal. 35: 153-156
- 34. Saini, P.; Mann, B.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, R.; Singh, R.R.B. and Chatterjee, A. (2013). Process optimization for preparation of caseinophosphopeptides from buffalo milk casein and their characterization. Journal of Dairy Research. 81: 364-371.
- 35. Barui, A.K.; Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S. and Singh, S. (2013) A rapid paper chromatographic method for detection of anionic detergent in milk. Journal of Food Science & Technology. 50: (4): 826-829
- 36. Athira, S.; Mann, B.; Sharma, R. and Kumar, R. (2013) Ameliorative potential of whey protein hydrolysate against paracetamol-induced oxidative stress. Journal of Dairy Science. 96 (3), 1431-1437
- 37. Kumari, A.; Mann, B.; Saini, B.; Singh, R.R.B.; Kumar, R. and Sharma, R. (2013) Assessment of antioxidant and physico-chemical Characterization of ice cream added with whey protein hydrolysates. Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 66 (5): 382-387.
- 38. Mann, B.; Kumari, A.; Prajapati, K.; Kumar, R. and Sharma, R. (2013) In vitro and in vivo assessment of the antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates prepared using commercial enzymes. Journal of Animal Science. Vol. 91, E-Suppl. 2/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 96, E-Suppl. 1:396.
- 39. Naik, L.; Mann, B.; Bajaj, R.; Sangwan, R.S. and Sharma, R. (2013) Process Optimization for the Production of Bio-functional Whey Protein Hydrolysates: Adopting Response Surface Methodology.International Journal of Peptide & Therapeutics. 19: 231-237.
- 40. Sari, T.P.; Mann, B.; Sharma, R.; Kumar, R.; Vikrant and Minaxi. (2013) Process Optimization for the production of nanoencapsulated curcumin and analysis for physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant mechanism. International Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering Research. 4 (6): 581-586.
- 41. Neelima, Rao, P.S.; Sharma R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2012) Direct estimation of sialic acid in milk and milk products by fluorimetry and its application in detection of sweet whey adulteration in milk. Journal of Dairy Research.79 (4): 495-501.
- 42. Barui, A.K.; Sharma, R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2012) Determination of anionic detergent in milk using Azure A dye. International Dairy Journal.24 (1): 44-47.
- 43. Sharma, R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2012) Rapid methods for assessing efficiency of heat treatment of milk. Journal of Food Science & Technology.47 (1): 3-7.
- 44. Naik, L.; Mann, B.; Bajaj, R.; Sangwan, R.S.; Sharma, R. and Manju, G. (2012) Technofunctional properties of whey protein hydroysates prepared using trypsin. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65: 141 – 145.
- 45. Rao, P.S.; Kundu, M.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, R. and Rajput, Y.S. (2012). A spectrophotometric method for the detection of cheese whey in milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci.65(4): 300-304.
- 46. M.P. Divya, Rajput, Y.S and Sharma, R. (2010) Synthesis and application of tetracycline imprinted polymer. Analytical Letters, 43(6): 919 – 928.
- 47. Mangaldas, K.M.; Rajput, Y.S; Sharma, R. (2010) Urease immobilization on arylamine glass beads and its characterization. Journal of Plant Biochemistry & Biotechnology19(1), 73-77.
- 48. Sharma, R.; Poonam; Rajput, Y.S. (2010) Methods for detection of soymilk adulteration in milk.Milchwissenschaft65(2): 157-160.
- 49. Balkishan, N.P.; Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S, and Tomar, S.K. (2010) Activities and thermal stability of indigenous enzymes in cream and ice-cream mix. Milchwissenschaft65 (2) 190-192.
- 50. Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S.; Poonam; Dogra, G. and Tomar, S.K. (2009) Estimation of sugars in milk by HPLC and its application in detection of adulteration of milk with soymilk. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 62 (4) 514-519.
- 51. Sharma, R.; Kaur, S.; Rajput, Y.S. and Kumar, R. (2009) Activity and thermal stability of indigenous enzymes in cow, buffalo and goat milk Milchwissenschaft64 (2): 173-175
- 52. Charles, S.J.A.; Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S. and Singh, R.R.B. (2009)Estimation of starch in ice-cream and gulabjamunby polarimetric method. Journal of Food Science & Technology46 (3): 207-11.
- 53. Iyer, R.; Tomar, S.K.; Singh, R. and Sharma, R. (2009) Estimation of folate in milk by microbiological assay using Trienzyme extraction method. Milchwissenschaft64 (2): 125-127.
- 54. Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S.; Poonam (2010) A method for maltodextrin estimation in milk.Milchwissenschaft, 65 (4): 362-364.
- 55. Sharma, R.; Lal, D.; Seth, R.; Wadhwa, B.K. and Rajput, Y.S. (2009) Lactic acid and titratable acidity measurement in formalin preserved milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 62: 96 – 100.
- 56. Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S.; Kaur, S. and Tomar, S.K. (2008) A method for estimation of urea using ammonia electrode and its applicability to milk samples. Journal of Dairy Research, 75 (4), 466-470.
- 57. Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S.; Dogra, G. and Tomar, S.K. (2007) Estimation of vitamin B12 by ELISA and its status in milk. Milchwissenschaft, 62 (2): 127-130.
- 58. Sharma, R.; Lal, D.; Seth, R.; Wadhwa, B.K. and Rajput, Y.S. (2007) Applicability of lactic acid estimation methods in milk in presence of additives. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 60 (6): 399-404.
- 59. Sharma, V., Lal, D.; Sharma, R. (2007) Colour based platform test for the detection of vegetable oils/fats in ghee. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 60 (1): 16-18.
- 60. Charles, S.J.A.; Sharma, R.; Rajput, Y.S. and Singh, R.R.B. (2006) A polarimetric method for the quantitative estimation of added starch in milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci. 59 (5): 287-290.
- 61. Sharma, R. and Lal, D. (2005) Fortification of milk with microencapsulated vitamin C and its thermal stability. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 42 (2): 167-173.
- 62. Sharma, R. and Lal, D. (2003) Stability of some water-soluble vitamins in LP-activated milk. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 56 (3): 148-153.
- 63. Sharma, R.and Lal, D. (2002) Influence of ascorbic acid fortification and removal of oxygen on the stability of water-soluble vitamins in buffalo milk. Indian J Dairy Biosci.,13 (1): 53-58.
- 64. Sharma, R. and Lal, D. (2002) Stability of different water-soluble vitamins during preparation and subsequent storage of spray dried buffalo skim milk powder. Journal of Food Science & Technology., 39 (4): 439-441.
- 65. Sharma, R. and Sarwar (2000) Determination of fat in formalin preserved milk samples. Indian J. Dairy and Biosci.,11: 138-141.
- 66. Sharma, R. and Lal, D. (1999) Effect of various heat processing treatments on vitamin C content in buffalo milk and cow milk. Indian J. Dairy and Biosci.,10: 113-116.
- 67. Sharma, R. and Lal, D. (1999) Changes in some water-soluble vitamins during preparation and storage of khoa. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 36(4): 349 – 351.
- 68. Sharma, R. and Lal, D. (1998) Influence of various heat processing treatments on some B-vitamins in buffalo and cow’s milks. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 35(6): 524 – 526.
- 69. Sharma, R. and Lal, D. (1997) Effect of dahi(curd) preparation on some water-soluble vitamins. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 50(4): 318-320.
- 70. Sharma, R. and Singhal, O.P. (1996). Fatty acid composition, Bömer value and opacity profile of Ghee prepared from milk adulterated with foreign fats. Indian J. Dairy Sci.,49(1): 62-67.
- 71. Sharma, R. and Singhal, O.P. (1995). Physico – Chemical constants of Ghee prepared from milk adulterated from foreign fats. Indian J. Dairy and Biosci.,6: 51-53.