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    The discipline of Animal Physiology functioned as a section of erstwhile Dairy Husbandry Division and subsequently of Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division till the end of the 6th Five Year Plan. In the year 1984, it received the status of an independent Division.

    Objectives
    • To Conduct Basic and Applied Research and impart training in various aspects of Animal Physiology.
    • To undertake Post Graduate Programmes of Education in Animal Physiology at Masters and Doctoral levels.
    • Development and application of field level technologies.

    Dr. A.K. Dang, HOD

    Welcome to the Animal Physiology Division. The independent division came into existence since 1984 and the scientists of the division have contributed to the development of infrastructural facilities to initiate research in the area of Embryo Biotechnology centre and now the same has been established as Animal Bio-Technology Centre. A large Animal Treadmill was indigenous developed for the draft evaluation system and work-rest cycle in working bullocks. The division has been committed to conduct Research, Teaching, and Extension activities in the different areas of Animal Physiology Discipline that are Environmental and Stress Physiology, Lactation and Immuno Physiology, Growth and Reproductive Physiology, and Endocrinology. Somatic Cell Counts as an index of clean milk production and udder health in milch animals have been a major focus for a package of practices. A modern custom-designed shelter with automatic control systems has been installed in Livestock Research Centre to ameliorate the heat stress. Water-saving / purification demonstration units have been installed at the animal farm and are ready to use by the dairy farmers. Modern state-of-the-art facilities are available at National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agricultural Research Centre (NICRA). During the last five years 41 MVSc and 22 PhD students have passed out and most of the students have been well placed in ARS/Agricultural University and others are pursuing their higher studies.

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    Research

    Presently, the Division is focusing its research thrust in 3 main areas namely Growth and Reproductive Physiology, Lactation and Immuno Physiology, and Environmental and stress Physiology.

    Important research findings and Technologies (not more than 20)

    • Development of sensitive radio-immunoassays for several protein and steroid hormones; development and validation of sensitive enzyme immunoassays for progesterone, oxytocin, GH, LH, FSH and PGFM
    • Application of progesterone measurement in body fluids for fertility improvement viz. estrus confirmation, pregnancy/non pregnancy detection, monitoring cyclicity and identification of ovarian disorders, application of estrone sulphate determination in milk for confirmation of pregnancy and fetal viability.
    • Indigenous production of progesterone antiserum and anti-rabbit IgG (second antibody) and their application in hormone immunoassays.
    • Parturition induction, super ovulation and embryo transfer; neonate physiology; temporal endocrine interrelationships during different phases of growth, reproduction and lactation.
    • Application of endocrine techniques for growth enhancement and fertility improvement, optimum frequency of feeding and milking.
    • Induction of lactation, augmentation of lactation through Growth Hormone administration, estimates of udder capacities, residual milk and milk secretion rates.
    • Limit of milk SCC set for Sahiwal, Tharparkar cows and Murrah buffaloes.
    • Draught evaluation system, work efficiency of crossbred and indigenous bovine and buffalo bullocks and optimum work-rest cycle for working bullocks.
    • Neutrophils in tissue remodelling, wound healing, maintaining homeostasis around transition, mastitis and during implantation of embryo in dairy cows.

    Modulating the immune-cellular components and their signalling molecules in bovine colostrum and milk after micro-nutrient interventions and their functional validation under ex-vivo and in vivo animal models (DBT )

    • To study the effect of micronutrient supplementation on immune cells and their signaling molecules in colostrum, transitional and normal milk of bovines.

    • To assess the role of modified colostrum and milk in the alleviation of immunocompromised situation in calf and mice models.

    Neutrophils as potential biomarkers/ predictors of early pregnancy in cows (DBT)

    • To identify abundantly expressed pregnancy associated genes and proteins on neutrophils during early pregnancy

    • Targeting neutrophil early pregnancy induced proteins for development of an ELISA for early pregnancy diagnosis

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    Faculty

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    Achievements

    NICRA- Salient Achievements

    • Astaxanthin supplementation @ 0.25mg/kg body weight in Murrah buffaloes improved milk production performance, improvement in immunity, antioxidant status during summer and winter seasons.
    • There was improvement in body weight gain with improved immunity and low stressor levels indicating ameliorative effect of Betaine supplementation in Karan Fries heifers during hot dry & hot humid seasons as compared to thermo neutral season.
    • Fermented potato protein supplementation @ 50gm/day significantly increased the productive performance of KF cows.
    • Dietary manipulation of NDF at 34.5% was effective to sustain the milk production and fat content in comparison to 30 and 37% NDF at av. THI of 79.
    • Curcumin treatment of BuMEC @5, 10 and 20 µM alleviated the heat stress in in vitro study.
    • 387 conserved and 77 novel miRNAs were identified in KF and Tharparkar cattle under heat stress.
    • The study on seasonal variation in milk composition revealed that milk composition variability was less in Tharparkar as compared to Sahiwal and Gir. Sahiwal showed much fluctuation in compositional parameters as compared to Gir and Tharparkar.
    • The average daily milk yield decline by 41 gram in the heat stress zone while there was a decline of 10 gram per unit increase in THI in Sahiwal cows. There was no decline in the non heat stress zone.

    Agri. CRP project–Salient achievements

    • Reuse of waste water for fodder production and other agriculture purposes: Around 70 acres of land is being used for green fodder and seed production purely irrigated by waste water received from Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) with a capacity of 3.5 to 4 MLD.
    • Waste water reuse for livestock drinking: Protocol for purification of waste water was developed successfully in laboratory and water quality parameters were studied. Purified waste water was found to be qualifying all available national and international drinking water standards and can be reused for drinking and cleaning purposes in livestock production system.
    • Development of water saving devices: Water saving devices designed, tested and established at different water points in Livestock Research Center (LRC) at NDRI, Karnal for saving free flowing drinking water. After evaluating the performance of these water saving devices at LRC another section Animal Breeding Research Complex (ABRC), NDRI, Karnal, also adapted the technology for water saving. By installing this water saving devices institute is saving around 10 lakhs liters of water on daily basis.
    • The water saving system for dairy animal water troughs designed and developed. Around 20 demonstration units were also installed at LRC, NDRI, Karnal. Under the project the water saving devices were also installed in one of the countries’ famous and oldest Gaushala at Radha Swami Satsang Gaushala, Dayl Bagh, Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
    • Water cum Air Pressure Cleaning Device for Saving Water Use in Floor Cleaning
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    Courses Offered

    Ph.D. Courses
    AP-711- (3+0) Biotechniques in Animal Production
    AP-712- (3+0) Comparative Physiology of Ruminant Digestion
    AP-713- (3+0) Advances in Neuro-Endocrinology
     AP-714- (3+0) Advances in Biosynthesis and Secretion of Milk
    AP-715- (3+0) Physiology of Stress
    AP-721- (3+0) Physiology of Animal Behavior
    AP-722- (3+0) Advances in Reproductive Physiology
    AP-723- (3+0) Advances in Bioenergetics and Growth
    AP-724- (3+0) Advances in Immuno Physiology
    AP-719- (1+0) Doctoral Seminar – I
    AP-729- (1+0) Doctoral Seminar – II
    AP-799 Doctoral Research
    M.V. Sc Courses
    AP 621- (2+1) Physiology of Digestion
    AP 611- (2+1) Haematology, Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiology
    AP 612- (2+1) Renal Physiology and Body Fluid Dynamics
    AP 613 -(2+1) Bioenergetics of Productive Processes
    AP 614- (2+1) Physiology of Animal Reproduction
    AP 622 -(2+1) Physiology of Lactation
    AP 623- (2+0) Neuromuscular Physiology
    AP 624- (2+1) Chemical Bioregulation in Physiological functions
    AP 625- (2+1) Physiology of Animal Behavior
     AP-629-(1+0) (Masters Seminar)
    AP 699- (2+0) Master’s Research
    Pre-Requisite Courses
    AP-411- (2+1) Elements of Physiology
    AP-421- (2+1) Growth , Digestion and Environmental Physiology
    AP-422- (2+1) Physiology of Reproduction , Lactation and Endocrinology
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    Technologies

    Estimation of milk somatic cell counts to Gopaljee Dairy foods (P) Ltd. and Paras Dairy, Ghaiziabad, U.P.

    Respiratory Gaseous Exchange (CO2 and O2 measurement), Climate Chamber ; Animal Calorimeter ; ECG ; Somatic Cell Counter ; EIA ; Automatic Milko-tester; Trans Blot; Blood gas analyser; Blood analyser ; Inverted Microscopes, Refrigerated Centrifuge (-80)