• Dr. Sitangsu Mohan Deb

    Dr. Sitangsu Mohan Deb
    Principal Scientist & Head

    Animal Genetics & Breeding Division, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal

    • Current Research Area
      Molecular breeding

    Qualifications :

    • PhD Dairying in AG&B from ICAR-NDRI, Haryana
    • MSc Dairying in AG&B from NDRI (Kurukshetra University), Haryana
    • BVSc&AH from Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, West Bengal

    Major Research Accomplishments:

    • DNA Marker (GT13 of NRAMP1 gene) for Brucella resistance identified in buffaloes
    • DNA markers, using MASA, identified for Rohilkhand goat
    • Characterized microsatellite-based markers for Nili Ravi from the field which will be useful for the conservation of this vulnerable breed
    • Identified and isolated fungus species from rumen of buffaloes which reduce Methane production
    • Identified fungus species to enhance digestibility of straw and improve growth in Nili Ravi buffaloes
    • First time characterized ITGB2 involved in antigen-presentation function in Murrah buffaloes
    • Double copy of DQA identified in Murrah buffaloes which may be related to enhanced immunity
    • Developed prediction equation for milk yield in crossbred cattle which is useful under field condition
    • Developed package & practices for summer management of Nili Ravi buffalo for higher production and reproduction

    Research Projects Accomplished:

    As Principal Investigator:

    • Improvement of goats for pashmina production (1996-1998).
    • Studies on high-resolution banding of Chromosomes of Bovidae (2000-03).
    • Characterization of Integrin genes in buffaloes (2003-04).
    • DBT funded project: Characterization and mapping of selected genes known to control immune response in water buffaloes (2004-07).
    • Genetic evaluation of Nili Ravi buffaloes (2005-10).
    • Network Project on Buffalo Improvement: Nili Ravi buffaloes (2005-10).
    • CCPI for DST funded Project: National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE), Task Force-6 on Himalayan Agriculture (North-East Himalaya).

    As associate:

    • DBT funded project: Isolation and molecular characterization of superior fibre degrading anaerobic fungus and development of protocol for their preservation and utilization for increasing digestibility of fibrous feed in buffaloes (2006-09).
    • EU Funded project: Integrated consortium on tick and tick borne diseases (2004-08).
    • NAIP funded project: Rumen microbial diversity in domesticated and wild ruminants and impact of additives on utilization of poor quality feeds (2008-2011).
    • AP Cess Fund project: Molecular studies on milk protein genes and its association with production traits in buffaloes (2002-2005).
    • Inter-institutional project CIRB & NBAGR): Assessment of current status and breed characteristics and genetic structure of Nili Ravi buffaloes in their breeding tract (2008-2010).
    • Inter-institutional project (IVRI & NRCM): DNA polymorphism of genes associated with growth performance in Mithun (Bos frontalis) (2003-2006).
    • Institutional project (IVRI): Molecular analysis of interleukin locus in buffalo (2002-05).
    • Institutional project (IVRI): DNA polymorphisms in NRAMP1 gene and its association with genetic resistance to bovine brucellosis (2001-2004).
    • Institutional project (CIRB): Monitoring somatic cells in milk of Nili Ravi buffaloes (2006-09).

     

    Membership of professional Societies/Committees/ Awards:

    • Executive member (2007-08) and Life Member: Society for conservation of domestic animal biodiversity, NBAGR, Karnal.
    • Life Member: Laboratory animal science association of India, CDRI, Lucknow.
    • Life Member: Genetic Association of India,
    • Life Member: Indian society of Animal genetics and Breeding, Noida, U.P.
    • Life Member: Indian Society for Buffalo Development,
    • Fellow (FSSARSC) & Life Member: Scientific Society of Advance Research and Social Change, New Delhi.
    • Fellow (FNAVS) & Life Member: National Academy of Veterinary Sciences (India), Delhi.
    • Award: OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENT AWARD FOR VETERINARY SCIENCE-2015 by Global Society for Health & Educational Growth, Delhi during 2016.
    • Award: INDIRA GANDHI PRIYADARSHINI AWARD-2015 by International Business Council, Delhi during 2016.
    • Award: EMINENT SCIENTIST AWARD-2017 by Samagra Vikas Welfare Society, Lucknow during 2017.
    • Life Member: Indian Association of Hill Farming, Umiam, Meghalaya.
    • Life Member: Indian Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Research (IAAVR), Bareilly.
    • Member of the State Level Screening Committee to oversee the implementation of Livestock Mission Programme of the state approved by the HE Governor of Arunachal Pradesh [ of Arunachal Pradesh notification AHV/P-NLM/ 2014-15 dated 17/06/2014].
    • Member of the State Level Executive Committee climate Change Adaptation-NER for Government of Arunachal Pradesh approved by the HE Governor of Arunachal Pradesh [ of Arunachal Pradesh notification PD (PPP) CCA-NER01/2015/3545-48 dated 09/02/2016].
    • Fellow: Senior Executive Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School- Executive Education, Massachusetts, USA.
    • Head, National Library in Dairying, NDRI, Karnal, 2018-Continued.

    RESEARCH ARTICLES:

    • Anabarasan, K.; Sharma, A. K.; Singh, R. K.; Deb, S. M. and Sharma, D. 2001. Genetic differentiation among goats using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 20(1): 83-88.
    • Anabarasan, K.; Sharma, A. K.; Singh, R. K.; Deb, S. M.; Sharma, D. and Mazumder, N. K. 2002. Genetic relatedness among descript and non-descript goats using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 72(1): 96-98.
    • Das, K. S.; Singh, G.; Paul, S. S.; Malik, R.; Oberoi, P. S. and Deb, M. 2011. Physiological responses and performance of Nili-Ravi buffalo calves under different washing frequency during hot summer months in tropics. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43(1): 35-39.
    • Ganguly, I.; Sharma, A.; Singh, R.; Deb S. M.; Singh, D. K.; Mitra, A. 2008. Association of microsatellite (GT)n polymorphism at 3´UTR of NRAMP1 with the macrophage function following challenge with Brucella LPS in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Veterinary Microbiology, 129(1-2): 188-196.  
    • John, B.; Kumar, S.; Deb, S.M.; Mitra, A.; Niranjan, S. K.; Naskar, S. and Sharma, A. 2006. Genetic variability of integrin Beta-1 (ITGB1) gene of buffaloes. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 30(2): 149-152.
    • John, B.; Kumar, S.; Deb, S.M.; Mitra, A.; Niranjan, S. K.; Naskar, S. and Sharma, A. 2007. Characterization of partial integrin beta-1 (ITGB1) gene of buffalo. Indian Journal of Animal sciences, 77(3): 255-256.
    • Kumar, N.; Mitra, A.; Ganguly, I.; Singh, R.; Deb, S. M.; Sivastava, S. K. and Sharma, A. Lack of association of Brucellosis-resistance with (GT)13 microsatellite allele at 3’ UTR of NRAMP1 gene in Bos indicus and crossbred (Bos indicus X Bos Taurus) cattle. Veterinary Microbiology, 111(1-2): 139-143.
    • Kumar, N.; Ganguly, I.; Singh, R.; Deb, S. M.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, A. and Mitra, A. 2011. DNA polymorphism in SLC11A1 gene and its association with brucellosis resistance in Indian zebu (Bos indicus) and crossbred (Bos indicus X Bos taurus) cattle. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 24(7):898-904.
    • Kumar, S.; Manohar, V. R. P.; Deb, S. M.; Mitra, A.; John, B.; Sharma, A. and Bujarbaruah, K. M. 2008. Molecular variability of somatotropin releasing hormone (SRH) gene in Mithun (Bos frontalis). Journal of Applied Animal Research, 33(2): 205-207.
    • Kumar, S. Gupta, S.; Dhali, A.; Manohar, R. P.V.; Deb, S. M.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, A.; Chaudhary, H. and Rajkhowa, C. 2009. Polymorphism of partial growth hormone (GH) gene in mithun (Bos frontalis). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 79(2): 212-214.
    • Kumar, S. Gupta, S.; Dhali, A.; Manohar, R. P.V.; Deb, S. M.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, A. and Bujarbaruah, K. M. 2009. Nucleotide variability of partial somatotropin hormone (STH) gene in mithun (Bos frontalis). Journal of Applied Animal Research, 35(2): 165-168.
    • Manohar, R.M.; Kumar S.; Dhali, A.; Deb, S.M.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, A.; Chowdhary, H. and Rajkhowa, C. 2008. Polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in Mithun. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 78(8): 891-893.
    • Naskar, S. Deb, S. M.; Niranjan, S. K.; Sakaram, D.; Sharma, D.; Kumar. S. and Sharma, A. Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB gene exon-2 in riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 13(4): 532-535.
    • Naskar, S. Deb, S. M.; Niranjan, S. K. Kumar. S.; Sharma, D.; Sakaram, D. and Sharma, A. Molecular characterization of MHC-DRB gene in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Genetics and Molecular Biology, 35(1): 95-98.
    • Niranjan, S. K.; Deb, S. M., Sharma, A.; Mitra, A. and Kumar, S. 2009. Isolation of two cDNAs encoding MHC-DQA1 and DQA2 from the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 130(3-4): 268-271.
    • Niranjan, S. K.; Deb, S. M.; Kumar, S.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, A.; Sakaram, D.; Naskar, S.; Sharma, D. and Sharma, S. R. 2010. Allelic diversity at MHC class II DQ loci in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Evidence for duplication. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 138(3):206-212.
    • Niranjan, S. K.; Deb S. M.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, D.; Sharma, A. K. and Sharma, A. 2005. Partial genomic sequence of buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) ITGB2 gene. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 28(1): 41-43.
    • Paul, S.S.; Deb, S. M.; Punia, B.S.; Singh, D. and Kumar, R. 2010. Fibrolytic potential of anaerobic fungi (Piromyces ) isolated from wild cattle and wild blue bull in pure culture and effect of their addition on in vitro fermentation of wheat straw and methane emission by rumen fluid of buffaloes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90 (7):1218-1226.
    • Paul, S. S.; Deb, S. M. and Singh, D. 2011. Isolation and Characterization of Novel sulphate-reducing Fusobacterium sp. and their Effects on in Vitro Methane Emission and Digestion of Wheat Straw by Rumen Fluid from Indian Riverine Buffaloes. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167(6):132-140.
    • Paul, S. S.; Deb, S. M. ; Punia, B. S.; Das, K. S.; Singh, G.; Ashar, M. and Kumar, R. 2011. Effect of Feeding Isolates of Anaerobic Fungus Neocallimastix Sp. CF 17 on Growth Rate and Fibre Digestion in Buffalo Calves. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 65(3): 215-228.
    • Panigrahi, M; Kumar, S.; Deb, S. M.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, A. and Bujarbaruah, K. M. 2009. Lack of polymorphism in partial insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) genes of Mithun. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 36(1): 41-44
    • Panigrahi, M; Kumar, S.; Deb, S. M.; Mitra, A.; Chowdhary, H. and Sharma, A. 2012. Polymorphism of insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) partial gene in Mithun. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 82(12): 1584-1586.
    • Panigrahi, M; Kumar, S.; Deb, S. M.; Mitra, A.; Sharma, A. and Bujarbaruah, K. M. 2012. Characterization of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) partial gene in mithun. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 82(1): 89-91.
    • Rajamurugan, J; Kumar, S.; Pandey, O. P.; Deb, S. M.; Mitra, A. and Sharma, A. 2007. Characterization of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) partial gene in buffalo. Indian Journal of animal Sciences, 77(8): 749-751.
    • Rajaravindra, K. S.; Mitra, A., Sharma, A. K., Deb, S. M. and Sharma, A. 2006. Molecular characterization of interferon-tau gene of Mithun (Bos frontalis). Zoological Science, 23(7): 607-611.
    • Salim, P.B.; Deb, S. M. and Sharma, A. K. 2003. Test day yields for genetic evaluation of crossbred sires. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 73(3): 323-325.
    • Sakaram, D., Niranjan, S.K., Kumar, S., Naskar, S., Deb, S.M., Mitra, A., Sharma, A. and Sharma, D. 2010. cDNA characterization and molecular analysis of buffalo MHC class II gene, DRA (Bubu-DRA). Journal of Applied Animal Research, 37(1): 73-76.
    • Sharma, D.; Niranjan, S. K.; Kumar, S.; M. Deb; Naskar, S.; Sharma, A. and Mitra, A. 2010. Molecular characterization of Bubaline Integrin β2 (ITGB2) cDNA. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 37(2): 217-220.
    • Sharma, D.; Sharma, A. K.; Deb, S. M.; Singh, R. K. and Bisht, G. S. 2006. Identification of species-specific marker(s) using Mini-/ Micro-Satellite Associated Sequence Amplification (MASA). Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 76(3): 248-251.
    • Sharma, D.; Kumar, S.; Deb, S. M. , Mitra, A.; Niranjan, S. K.; Naskar, S.; Sharma, A. Identification of novel allelic variants of integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) gene and screening for Bubaline leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome in Indian water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Animal Biotechnology, 20(3):156-160.
    • Niranjan, S. K.; Deb, S. M. and Sharma, A. 2013. Characterization of New MHC (Bubu)-DQB Allele in Buffalo. Journal of Animal Research, 3(1): 95-97.
    • Niranjan, S. K.; Deb, S. M.; Kumar, S.; Mitra, A.; Naskar, S. and Sharma, A. 2011. Genetic characterization of buffalo MHC (Bubu)-DQB cDNA molecule. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 39(2): 136-138.
    • Mandal, S. K.; Jishi, H. C.; Mazumder, A. C.; Deb, S. M.; Pandey, H. N.; Varshney, V. P. and Dutt, T. 2011. The male effect in indigenous Muzaffarnagari sheep. 1. Behavioural and ovarian responses of anoestrous ewes to male introduction. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 39(3): 275-278.
    • Singh, T. P.; Singh, R.; Das, K. S. and Deb, S. M. Performance of production traits in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 81(12): 1231-1238.
    • Naskar, S., Deb, S. M., Kumar, S., Niranjan, S. K., Sharma, D., Sakaram, D., Sharma, A. (2014) Molecular Characterization of T Cell Receptor-Zeta Subunit (CD247) Gene in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Journal of Applied Animal Research, 42(1): 38-43.
    • Sharma, D.; Kumar, S. and Deb, S. M. PCR–RFLP Analysis of CD18 Gene in Buffalo. Journal of Animal Health and Production. 2(1): 5 -7.
    • Biswas, S.; Mukherjee, R.; Mahto, R. P.; De, U. K.; Chakravarti, S.; Bera, A. K. and Deb, S. M. 2014. Antibacterial sensitivity and resistance pattern of yak inflammatory infection from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9(10): 683-689.
    • Kathiravan, P.; Dubey, P.K.; Goyal, S.; Mishra, B. P.; Singh, G.; Deb, S. M.; Sadana, D.K.; Joshi B.K. and Kataria, R.S. 2015. Marker assisted evaluation of morphological and genetic attributes of sub-populations of Nili-Ravi buffalo: A vulnerable dairy type riverine breed of India. Russian Journal of genetics, 51(8): 799-806 [Genetika, 51(8): 933-940].
    • Maiti, S.; Jha, S. K.; Garai, S.; Nag, A.; Bera, A. K.; Paul, V.; Upadhyay, R. C. and Deb, S. M. An Assessment of Social Vulnerability to Climate Change among the Districts of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Ecological Indicators, 77: 105-113.
    • Chakravarty, P., Hussain, M., Chauhan, M. S., Manik, R. S., Baishya, D., Bhuyan, S., Soren, S., Deori, S., Paul, V., Das, P. J., Doley, J., Borah, B. K. D., Krishnan, G., Dutta, D. J., and Deb, S. M. In vitro yak embryo production through conventional and ovum pickup methods. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 27 (1): 218-218.
    • Paul, S. S.; Deb, S. M.; Dey, A.; Somvanshi, S. P. S.; Singh, D.; Rathore, R. and Stiverson, J. 2015. 16S rDNA analysis of archaea indicates dominance of Methanobacterium and high abundance of Methanomassiliicoccaceae in rumen of Nili-Ravi buffalo. Anaerobe, 35(Pt B):3-10.
    • Maiti, S.; Jha, S. K.; Garai, S.; Nag, A.; Bera, A. K.; Deb, S. M. and Upadhyay, R. C. 2015. Social vulnerability of alpine transhumance pastoralists of western Arunachal Pradesh to climate change. Range Management and Agroforestry, 36(1): 92-98.
    • Jeeva, K.; Chatterjee, N.; Bera, A. K.; Maiti, S.; Ram, H. Banerjee, S.; Goswami, T. K.; Das, P. J.; Chauma, J.; Milton, A. A. P.; Aravind, M.; Bhuvanapriya, G.; Thilagavathi, K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Deb, S. M. and Bhattacharya, D. 2015. An initial molecular signature of Indian isolates of Toxocara. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 85 (7): 709–713.
    • Das, P.P.; Krishnan, G.; Doley, J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Deb, S. M., Chakravarty, P. and Das, P. J. 2019. Establishing Amelogenin Gene as Sex Specific Marker in Yak by Genomic Approach. Journal of Genetics, 98(7): [ https://doi.org/ 1007/ s12041-019-1061-x]
    • Maiti, S.; Jha, S. K.; Garai, S.; Nag, A.; Bera, A, K.; Bhattacharya, D.; Kale, R. B. and Deb, S. M. Climate change awareness among the livestock rearers of east coast of India. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 86(7): 799-809.
    • Chatterjee, N.; Dhar, B.; Bhattarcharya, D.; Deori, S.; Doley, J. ; Bam, J.; Das, P. J.; Bera, A. K.; Deb, S. M.; Devi, N. N.; Paul, R.; Malvika, S. and Ghosh, S. K. 2018. Genetic assessment of leech species from yak (Bos grunniens) in the tract of North East India. Mitochondrial DNA Part A, 29(1): 73-81. [DOI-2016: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24701394.2016.1238914].
    • Niranjan, S. K.; Sharma, A.; Deb, S. M.; Naskar, S. and Sakaram, D. 2010. PCR-RFLP based identification of duplicated DQA loci in riverine buffalo. Journal of Livestock Biodiversity, 2(2): 64-66.
    • Das, P.; Das, P. P.; Krishnan, G.; Doley, J.; Biswas, T.; Paul, V.; Chakravarty, P. and Deb, S. M. Identification and Expression Profiling of MSY (male-specific region of Y chromosome) Genes for Yak Bull Fertility. Journal of Genetics, 98: 41 [ https://doi.org/ 10. 1007/ s12041-019-1091-4].

    BOOK:

    • Book: Paul, S. S.; Deb, S. M.; Singh, G. and Malik, R. 2008. Farmers guide to scientific feeding of buffaloes. Published by the Director, CIRB, Hisar.
    • Book: Das, K. S.; Singh, G. and Deb, S. M. Management for better reproduction in buffaloes. Published by the Director, CIRB, Hisar.
    • Book: Deb SM, Jangid BL, Moharana PC, Dayal D, Tripathi RS and Kaul RK. 2011. Resource Utilization through integrated farming system and biodiversity conservation in dry lands. Published by Director, ICAR-CAZRI.
    • Book: Deb, S. M. 2015. Importance of pastures and forages for temperate animals. In: Eco-responsive Feeding and Nutrition: Linking livestock and livelihood, Editors: Pattanaik, A. K.; Verma, A. K.; Jadhav, S. E.; Dutta, N. and Saikia, B. N. ISBN 978-81-908621-6-5, Proc. ANA Conf. 22-24 January 2015, pp: 57-62 (total size 354 pages).
    • Book: Deb, S. M. 2015. Traditional livestock production and growth opportunities in India. In: Sustainable use of grassland resources for forage production, biodiversity and environmental protection. Proc. XXIII International Grassland Congress (IGC 2015), 20-24 November 2015, New Delhi. Pp 69-78 [Total pages: 1-383]. Published by: Range Management Society of India.
    • Book: Arunachali Yak [ISBN: 978-93-5267-471-8]: Editors: PJ Das, S Deori and S M Deb, 2016.
    • Book: The Yak Wool [ISBN: 978-93-5291-419-7]: Editors: PJ Das, J Bam, Vijay Paul, D Medhi, A N Roy and S M Deb, 2017.

    Lead Papers Presented:

    • Deb, S. M. 2013. Improvement of yak husbandry and upliftment of socio-economic conditions of yak rearers in the country vis-à-vis strategy of NRCY. In: II Interface Meeting on Improvement of yak husbandry and upliftment of socio-economic conditions of yak rearers in the country, ICAR-NRCY, Dirang, Arunachal Pradesh 8 November 2013. Pp 1-6.
    • Deb, S. M. 2015. Importance of pastures and forages for temperate animals. In: Proc. ANA Conf. at CVSc, Khanapara, Guwahati, 22-24 January 2015, pp: 57-62.
    • Deb, S. M. 2015. ICAR-NRCY for improving livelihood of tribal pastoral communities on NER hills. In Proc. National Symposium on Livestock Production Practices for Small Farms of Marginalized groups and communities in India, CVSc, CAU, Aizwal, 28-30 January 2015.
    • Deb, S. M. 2015. Promoting sustainable livelihood through enabling small farmers in NER. In: Agricultural Science Congress, NDRI, Karnal, 3-6 February 2015.
    • Deb, S. M. 2015. Yak husbandry for sustainable livelihood of farmers in cold arid regions. In: Natl. Symp. Sustaining Agricultural Productivity in Arid Ecosystem: Challenges and Opportunities, CAZRI, Leh, 19-22 August 2015.
    • Deb, S. M. 2015. Key Note Address: Traditional livestock production and growth opportunities in India. XXIII International Grassland Congress (IGC 2015), 20-24 November 2015, New Delhi.
    • Maiti, S. and Deb, S. M. Yak research and development in India: Challenges, opportunities and strength. In: Souvenir of National Seminar on Sustaining Hill Agriculture in Changing Climate, 5-7 December 2015, Agartala, pp: 117-121.
    • Deb, S. M. Livelihood promotion of tribal pastoral communities on NER hills. In: Compendium of National Seminar on Sustaining Hill Agriculture in Changing Climate, 5-7 December 2015, Agartala, pp:286-287.
    • Deb, S. M. Prospect and Constraints in Livestock and Poultry Production on the Himalayan region of India. National Seminar on Sustaining Hill Agriculture in Changing Climate, 5-7 December 2015, Agartala.
    • Deb, S. M. Molecular Approaches for Characterization and Conservation of Yak and Mithun. National Symposium on Policy Planning for Livelihood Security through Domestic Animal Biodiversity, 11-12 February 2016, SKUAST, Jammu.
    • Deb, S. M. Traditional Livestock production system for sustainable rural livelihood support. National Scientific Symposium on Role of Veterinarians for sustainable livestock and poultry production to boost up rural economy, 10th January, 2016, WBUFAS, Kolkata