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    Courses Offered

    Academic Programmes offered in Dairy Microbiology Division

    1. Tech (Dairy Microbiology)

    Ph. D (Dairy Microbiology)

    1. Tech (Dairy Microbiology)
    2. Tech (Food Safety and Quality Assurance)

     

    DAIRY MICORBIOLOGY DIVISION

    COURSES OFFERRED IN DM DIVISION

    (2019-2020)

    B Tech DT
    I SEM
    Course No. Course Title Credits
    DM -111 Fundamentals of Microbiology (2+1)
    DM- 311 Quality and Safety Monitoring in Dairy Industry (2+1)
    II SEM
    DM -121 Microbiology of Fluid Milk (1+1)
    DM -221 Starter Culture and Fermented Milk Products (2+1)
    DM -222 Microbiology of Dairy Products (1+1)
    DM -321 Food and Industrial Microbiology (2+1)
                                 M. Tech DM

     

    Course No. Course Title Credits
    I SEM
    DM-611 Microbial Morphology and Taxonomy 2+1
    DM-612 Microbial Physiology 2+1
    DM-613 Microbiology of  Fluid  Milk and Dairy  Products 2+1
    DM 614 Environmental Microbiology           2+1
    DM-615 Microbiology of  Processed  Dairy Foods 2+1
    II SEM
    DM-621 Starter cultures and Fermented Dairy Products 2+1
    DM-622 Microbial Genetics 2+1
    DM-623 Microbiological Quality Assurance 2+1
    DM-624 Probiotics for  Health Foods 2+1
    DM-625 Research Techniques in Dairy Microbiology 2+1
    DM-626 Microbial Fermentation Technology 2+1
    DM-629 Credit seminar  

    1+0

                                             Ph.D DM

    Course No. Course Title Credits
    I   SEM
    DM- 711 Microbial Diversity and Physiology 3+0
    DM- 712 Advances in Microbial Genetics 3+0
    DM-719 Credit seminar 1+0
    I  II SEM
    DM -721 Advances in Dairy and Food Microbiology 3+0
    DM -722 Advances in Food Safety of Dairy Products 3+0
        DM-723  Advances in Probiotics and Functional Foods 3+0
        DM-729 Credit seminar 1+0

    DAIRY MICORBIOLOGY DIVISION

    Semester-wise breakup of courses allotted to M.Tech. / M.Sc. (Dairying),

    Dairy Microbiology

         (2019-2020)  20.7.19

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

    FIRST  SEMESTER
    Course No. Course Title Credits
    Major DM-611 Microbial Morphology and Taxonomy 2+1
    DM-612 Microbial Physiology 2+1
    DM-613 Microbiology of  Fluid  Milk and Dairy  Products 2+1
    DM-615 Microbiology of  Processed  Dairy Foods 2+1
    Minor DC-614 Food Chemistry 2+1
    Supporting AB-611 Basic Biochemistry 2+1
    Non credit HI- 100 Hindi 3+0
    PE -611 Physical Education 0+1
    GS-633 Intellectual Property and Its Management in Agriculture 1+0
    GS-635 Disaster Management 1+0
    SECOND SEMESTER
    Major DM-621 Starter Cultures and Fermented Dairy Products 2+1
    DM-622 Microbial Genetics 2+1
    DM-623 Microbiological Quality Assurance 2+1
    DM-624 Probiotics for  Health Foods 2+1
    DM-625 Research Techniques in Dairy Microbiology 2+1
    DM-626 Microbial Fermentation Technology 2+1
    Minor DC-623 Chemical Quality Assurance 2+1
    Supporting ES-627  Statistics for Industrial Applications 3+1
    Non credit GS-631 Library and Information Services 0+1
    TW-611 Technical Writing 1+1
    PE-611 Physical Education 0+1
    Credit Seminar  DM-629 Credit Seminar 1+0

    DAIRY MICORBIOLOGY DIVISION

    Semester-wise breakup of courses allotted to

    Ph.D. DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY

    (2019-2020)                            20.7.19    

    FIRST  SEMESTER
    Course No. Course Title   Credits
    Major DM- 711 Microbial Diversity and Physiology 3+0
    DM- 712 Advances in Microbial Genetics 3+0
    Minor AB-613 Biochemical Techniques 3+1                  
    AB -614 Food and Nutritional Biochemistry 3+0
      AB-713 Functional Genomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics 2+0
    Supporting FS-712 Biotechnological interventions in Food Safety & Quality Assurance 3+0
    Non credit GS -633 Intellectual Property and its Management in Agriculture 1+0
    GS- 635 Disaster Management 1+0
    HI -100 Hindi 3+0
    PE-611 Physical Education 0+1
    Credit Seminar DM-719 Credit seminar 1+0                    
    SECOND SEMESTER
    Course No. Course Title   Credits
    Major DM -721 Advances in Dairy and Food Microbiology 3+0
    DM -722 Advances in Food Safety of Dairy Products 3+0
    DM -723  Advances in Probiotics and Functional Foods 3+0
    Minor AB-623 Immunochemistry 2+1
    Supporting CS-621 Software Package for Statistical Computing 2+1
      DC- 624 Research  Techniques 2+1
    Non credit GS -631 Library and Information Service 0+1
    TW-711 Technical Writing 0+1
    PE -621 Physical Education 0+1
    Credit Seminar DM-729 Credit Seminar 1+0                   

                                                          

    DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY DIVISION

    Semester-wise breakup of Pre-requisite courses to be allotted to M.Sc./M.Tech Dairy Microbiology

    Students with three years Bachelor’s degree

          (2019-20)                                                              20.7.19

    Course No. Pre-Requisite Courses Credits
    FIRST  SEMESTER
    DM-111 Fundamentals of Microbiology 2+1
    DC-111 Physical Chemistry of Milk 2+1
    MP-111 Milk Production Management and Dairy Development 2+1
    DM-311 Quality and Safety Monitoring in Dairy Industry 2+1
    DT-312 Packaging of Dairy Products 2+1
    ES-311 Industrial Statistics 2+1
    SECOND SEMESTER
    DM-121 Microbiology of Fluid Milk 2+1
    DC-122 Chemistry of Milk 2+1
    DT-121 Market Milk 3+1
    DM-221 Starter Cultures and Fermented Milk Products 2+1
    DM-222 Microbiology of Dairy Products 2+1
    DM-321 Food and Industrial Microbiology 2+1

     

                 

              DAIRY MICORBIOLOGY DIVISION

    COURSES OFFERRED FOR Food Safety and Quality Assurance (FSQA)

    (2019-2020)

                                                        

    1. Tech Food Safety and Quality Assurance (FSQA)
    Course No. Course Title Credits
    I   SEM
    FS-611 Basic Concepts of Quality Assurance and Food Safety System 2+1
    FS-612 Risk Analysis Concept and Regulatory Standards for Foods 2+1
    FS-613/DM- 613 Microbiology of  Fluid  Milk and Dairy  Products 2+1
    FS-614 Food Microbiology 2+1
    FS-615/DC-614 Food Chemistry 21
    FS-619 Credit seminar 1+0
    II SEM
    FS-621/DM-623 Microbiological Quality Assurance 2+1
    FS-622/DC-622 Chemistry of Milk Products 2+1
    FS-623/DC-623 Chemical Quality Assurance 2+1
    FS-624/DC- 624 Research  Techniques 2+1
    FS-625/DM-625 Research Techniques in Dairy Microbiology 2+1
    FS-626/DM -621 Starter Cultures and Fermented Dairy Products 2+1
    Course No. Course Title Credits
    I   SEM
    FS-711 / DC-713 Advances in Chemistry of Functional Dairy Foods and Nutraceuticals 3+0
    FS-712 Biotechnological Interventions in Food Safety & Quality Assurance 3+0
    FS-719 Credit seminar 1+0
    II  SEM
    FS-721 / DC-721 Advances in Chemistry of Milk Processing 3+0
    FS -722/ DC-722 Advances in Analytical Techniques in Dairy Chemistry 3+0
    FS-723/ DM-722 Advances in Microbial Safety of Dairy Foods 3+0
    FS-729 Credit seminar 1+0

    Ph.D Food Safety and Quality Assurance (FSQA)

     DAIRY MICORBIOLOGY DIVISION

    COURSES OFFERRED IN DM DIVISION

       Semester-wise breakup of courses allotted to M.Tech. / M.Sc. (Dairying), FSQA     20.7.19

    (2019-2020)

    FIRST  SEMESTER
    Course No. Course Title Credits
    Major FS-611 Basic Concepts of Quality Assurance and Food Safety sytem 2+1
    FS-612 Risk Analysis Concept and Regulatory Standards for Foods 2+1
    FS-613/ DM-613 Microbiology of  Fluid  Milk and Dairy  Products 2+1
    FS-614/FN-613 Food Microbiology 2+1
    FS-615/DC- 614 Food Chemistry 2+1
    Minor FT-615 Technology of Milk and Milk Products 2+1
    FT-611 Principles of Food Processing 3+1
    Credit seminar FS-619 Credit seminar 1+0
    Supporting
    Non credit GS-633 Intellectual Property and Its Management in Agriculture 1+0
    GS-635 Disaster Management 1+0
    HI- 100 Hindi 3+0
    PE -611 Physical Education 0+1
    SECOND SEMESTER
    Major FS-621/DM-623 Microbiological Quality Assurance 2+1
    FS-622/DC-622 Chemistry of Milk Products 2+1
    FS-623/DC-623 Chemical Quality Assurance 2+1
    FS-624/DC-624 Research  Techniques 1+2
      FS-625/DM-625 Research Techniques in Dairy Microbiology 2+1
        FS-626/DM-621 Starter Cultures and Fermented Dairy Products 2+1
    Minor FT-623 Technology of Fruits and Vegetables 2+1
      FT-624 Technology of Meat, Poultry and Fish 2+1
      FT-625 Technology of Cereals, Pulses  and Oil Seeds 2+1
    Supporting ES-627 Statistics for Industrial Applications 3+1
    Credit seminar FS-629 Credit seminar 1+0
    Non credit GS -631 Library and Information Service 0+1
    TW-611 Technical Writing 1+1
    PE -621 Physical Education 0+1

    DAIRY MICORBIOLOGY DIVISION

    COURSES OFFERRED IN DM DIVISION

    Semester-wise breakup of courses allotted to Ph.D (Dairying), FSQA students

    (2019-20)                                                        20.7.19

     

    FIRST  SEMESTER
    Course No. Course Title Credits
    Major FS-711 / DC-713 Advances in Chemistry of Functional Dairy Foods and Nutraceuticals 3+0
    FS-712 Biotechnological interventions in Food Safety & Quality Assurance 3+0
    Minor FT-611 Principles of Food Processing 3+1
    FT-615 Technology of Milk and Milk Products 2+1
    Supporting
    Non credit GS-633 Intellectual Property and Its Management in Agriculture 1+0
    GS-635 Disaster Management 1+0
    HI- 100 Hindi 3+0
    PE -611 Physical Education 0+1
    Credit seminar FS-719 Credit seminar 1+0
    SECOND SEMESTER
    Major FS-721 /DC- 721 Advances in Chemistry of Milk Processing 3+0
    FS -722 /DC-722 Advances in Analytical Techniques in Dairy Chemistry 3+0
    FS-723/DM- 722 Advances in Microbial Safety of Dairy Foods 3+0
    Minor FT -621 Advanced Food Engineering 2+1
    FT-622 /DT-622 Advanced Dairy and Food Packaging 2+1
    Supporting ES-627  Statistics for Industrial Applications 3+1
    CS-621 Software Package for Statistical Computing 2+1
    Non credit GS -631 Library and Information Service 0+1
    TW-711 Technical Writing 1+1
    PE -621 Physical Education 0+1
    Credit seminar FS-729 Credit seminar 1+0

     DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY DIVISION

    Semester-wise breakup of Pre-requisite courses to be allotted to M.Sc./M.Tech Food Safety and Quality Assurance

    Students with three years Bachelor’s degree

    (2019-20)                                                                    20.7.19

    Course No. Pre-Requisite Courses Credits
    FIRST  SEMESTER
    DM-111 Fundamentals of Microbiology 2+1
    DC-111 Physical Chemistry of Milk 2+1
    MP-111 Milk Production Management and Dairy Development 2+1
    DM-311 Quality and Safety Monitoring in Dairy Industry 2+1
    DC-311 Chemical Quality Assurance 2+1
    ES-311 Industrial Statistics 2+1
    DT-312 Packaging Of Dairy Products 2+1
    SECOND SEMESTER
    DM-121 Microbiology of Fluid Milk 2+1
    DC-122 Chemistry of Milk 2+1
    DT-121 Market Milk 3+1
    DM-221 Starter Cultures and Fermented Milk Products 2+1
    DM-222 Microbiology of Dairy Products 2+1
    DM-321 Food and Industrial Microbiology 2+1

    DAIRY MICROBIOLOGY DIVISION

    Semester-wise breakup of pre-requisite courses to be allotted to Ph.D. FSQA students admitted with basic science/ Non-Dairying background

    (2019-20)                                                        20.7.19

     

    Course No. Course Title

     

    Credits

    (TH + P)

    I   SEMESTER
    FS-611 Basic Concepts of Quality Assurance and Food Safety System 2+1
    FS-612 Risk Analysis Concept and Regulatory Standards for Foods 2+1
    FS-614/ FT-613 Food Microbiology 2+1
    DC-614 Food Chemistry 2+1
    DM -613 Microbiology of  Fluid  Milk and Dairy  Products 2+1
    II  SEMESTER
    DM- 621 Starter Cultures and Fermented Dairy Foods 2+1
    DM-623 Microbiological Quality Assurance 2+1
    DM-625 Research Techniques in Dairy Microbiology 2+1
    DC-622 Chemistry of Milk Products 2+1
    DC-623 Chemical Quality Assurance 2+1
    ES-627 Statistics for Industrial Applications 3+1

     

    Dairy Microbiology

    Syllabus of Ph.D Courses

    DM 711: Microbial Diversity and Physiology

     Objective

    To understand the advances in microbial diversity and physiology for its interface with all other branches of microbiology.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Bacterial growth: cell division, phases of bacterial growth, factors affecting microbial growth, kinetics of growth, continuous culture system, diauxic and synchronous growth, advances in growth measurement.

    Unit II

    Prokaryotic cellular structures, biosynthesis of bacterial cell-wall, enterobacterial common antigens, role of membrane in regulation of cell-wall and DNA synthesis, physiology and genetic aspects of sporulation.

    Unit III

    Autotrophy, nutritional classification, chemolithotrophic electron transport systems: hydrogen oxidizing bacteria, sulfate reducing hydrogen bacteria, methanogenic hydrogen utilization, nitrifying bacteria, sulfur oxidizing bacteria, carbon monoxide oxidizing organisms, economic importance of autotrophs.

    Unit IV

    Membrane transport systems: types of transport: ion transport, iron transport, simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, mechanosensitive channel, ATP binding cassette transporter family, chemiosmotic driven transport, phosphotransferase system.

    Unit V

    Environmental selection and microbial stress response: osmotic stress, aerobic to anaerobic transitions, oxidative stress, pH stress and acid tolerance, thermal stress and nutritional stress, extremophiles.

    Suggested Readings

    • Cowan, M. K. 2012. Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 3rd Edn. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York, USA.
    • Madigan, M. T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. 2012. Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 13th Edn., Prentice Hall, London, U.K. edition, Prentice Hall, London, U.K.
    • Moat AG, Foster JW & Spector MP. 2004. Microbial Physiology. 4th Ed. John Wiley & Sons, USA
    • Ogunseitan, O. 2005. Microbial Diversity: Form and Function in Prokaryotes Blackwell Publishing, Malden, USA.
    • Xie et al.2011. Bacterial flagellum as a propeller and as a rudder for efficient chemotaxis. PNAS 108 (6): 2246-51.

    DM 712   Advances in Microbial Genetics

     Objective

    To familiarize the students with basic concepts of Microbial Genetics and impart them knowledge in advancements of Microbial Genetics and Genetic Engineering

     Theory

    Unit I 

    Essentials of Microbial Genetics – Introduction, Historical perspective and principles; Nucleic Acids: Structure and Function of DNA and RNA; DNA Replication –Recent models; Genetic Code

    Unit II

    Mutations – Spontaneous and Induced mutations; Types of mutations; Mutagenic agents – Physical and Chemical; Molecular basis of Mutagenesis; DNA Damage and Repair – Molecular Mechanisms; Site Directed Mutagenesis – Methods of directed mutagenesis, mechanism and applications

    Unit III

    Gene Expression – Transcription , Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression  Operon models, Regulation of Gene Expression  Operon models (Lac), Regulation of Gene Expression  Operon models (Gal), Regulation of Gene Expression  Operon models ( Trp)                                                    Unit IV

    Plasmids – Structure and replication; Transposable elements – IS and Tn elements; molecular mechanism of transposition; Genetic Recombination: Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation; Recombination methods as a tool for Gene mapping

    Unit V

    Genetic Engineering/ rDNA – Principles of recombinant DNA technology; Restriction Enzymes – Types, Mode of action and application as a tool for gene manipulation, Vectors – Cloning and expression vectors; PCR cloning, Microarray technology, Gene Silencing and Gene knock out

    Suggested Reading

    • Dyson MR & Durocher Y. (2007). Expression Systems. Scion Publ.
    • Hartl D, Jones L & Elizabeth W. (2000). Genetic Analysis of Genes and Genomes. Jones Bartkett Publ.
    • Keuzer H & Massey A. (2001). Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology. 2nd Ed… ASM Press.
    • Streips UN & Yasbin RE. (2002). Modern Microbial Genetics. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Synder L & Champness W. (2003). Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. 2nd Ed. ASM Publ.
    • James D. Watson, A. Baker Tania, P. Bell Stephen, Gann Alexander, Levine Michael, Losick Richard (2017). Molecular Biology of the Gene. Pearson.

    ———x——–

     DM-721 Advances in Dairy and Food Microbiology

     Objective

    To study and understand the current trends and recent concepts related microbiology of dairy and other foods products.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Lactic acid bacteria and food fermentations important metabolic pathways of microorganisms; current status of metabolism of starters cultures; current trends in lactic starter for industrial applications, novel starter preservation techniques.

    Unit II

    Modern concepts in cheese ripening; Bacteriology and starter rotations, improving starter cultures for food fermentation by genetic manipulation, recombination technology.

    Unit III

    Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, structure, function transport and mode of action; Application of bacteriocins in foods Biopreservation.

    Unit IV

    Current trends in food safety; newly emerging pathogens; Ecology and survival strategy of pathogens in foods. Novel technology in control of food based pathogens. Concepts in food toxicology; food borne toxins, current concepts in food quality and safety management

    Suggested Readings

    • Osman Erkmen, T. FarukBozoglu (2016) Food Microbiology: Principles into Practice, 2 Volume Set. Wiley Publishing
    • Hae-Soo Kwak (2015) Nano- and Microencapsulation for Foods.Wiley Publishing
    • Suvendu Bhattacharya (2014) Conventional and Advanced Food Processing Technologies. Wiley Publishing.
    • Debasis Bagchi, Francis C. Lau, Dilip K. Ghosh (2010). Biotechnology in Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals (1st Edition, 2010), published by CRC Press, USA.
    • Barbaros Ozer, Gülsün Akdemir-Evrendilek (2014) Dairy Microbiology and Biochemistry: Recent Developments. CRC Press

    DM-722 Advances in Food Safety of Dairy Foods

     Objectives

    To impart current knowledge pertaining to microbial risk assessment of dairy pathogens and their safety concern in dairy foods.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Milk borne diseases, epidemiology and surveillance in dairy products: Current trends, incidence and surveillance of milk borne diseases; Changing patterns in epidemiology, agricultural and food manufacturing practices, transmission and susceptibility.

    Unit II

    General mechanism of microbial pathogenesis: Food borne infection by colonization and adhesion factors like pilli or fimbriae, adhesion proteins, biofilm formation; Invasion and intracellular residence; Phagocytosis, invasion mediated induced phagocytosis; Iron acquisition; Motility and chemotaxis, invasion of immune system; Intoxication; Toxi-infection, structure and function of exotoxins and endotoxin; Genetic regulation and secretary system for virulence factors.

    Unit III

    Risk assessment of dairy pathogen: Growth and survival characteristics of dairy pathogens namely E. coli, Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazaki, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia enterocolitica, Streptococcus sp., L. monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Brucella sp., Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, toxigenicfungi and viruses in milk and milk products, their pathology of illness, mode of transmission, incidence of illness, virulence and infectivity.

    Unit IV

    Microbiological risk profile of dairy foods: Hazard identification and characterization in dairy products; Evidence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in milk and milk products; Risk factors affecting microbial safety of raw and processed dairy foods; Exposer assessment and risk characterization; Attribution of food-borne illness to dairy products; Risk management issues and control strategies for dairy products.

     Suggested Readings

    • Bhunia AK 2008 Foodborne Microbial Pathogens: Mechanisms and Pathogenesis. Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA.

    v  Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals (2018). Stefan Schwarz (Professor of veterinary medicine), Lina Maria Cavaco, Jianzhong Shen, Frank M. Aarestrup and published by ASM Press,

    v  Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment. Charles N. Haas, Joan B. Rose, Charles P. Gerba John Wiley & Sons, 09-Jun-2014 – Technology & Engineering.

    v  Indira T. Kudva, Tracy Nicholson (2016). Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press.

    v  D. Scott McVey, Melissa Kennedy, M. M. Chengappa (2013). Veterinary Microbiology John Wiley & Sons,

    v  Charles Yoe (2016). Principles of Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty. Publisher – Technology & Engineering

    • William HS and Michael PD 2009 Compendium of the Microbiological spoilage of food and Beverage. Springer Science. Heidelberg, London.

    DM-723 Advances in Probiotics and Functional Foods

     Objective:

    To familiarize the students with the concept of probiotics, prebiotics and functional foods and their application in human health

     Theory

    Unit I

    Probiotics: Introduction and history, Characteristics of Probiotics for selection, Stability during storage and passage to gastrointestinal tract

    Unit II

    Probiotic mode of action and disease control: Homeostasis of disturbed commensal microbial flora in the gut, pathogen exclusion, production of antimicrobial substances, modulation of immune system, alteration of intestinal bacterial metabolite action, alteration of microecology of healthy humans and patients.

    Unit III

    Prebiotics, Synbiotics and Postbiotics: Concept and definitions, criteria, types and sources of prebiotics, prebiotics and gut microbiota

    Unit IV

    Functional foods: Nutraceuticals, Medical/health foods, functional foods ingredients and their role in human health and nutrition

    Unit V

    Dairy based functional foods: Dahi, lassi, yoghurt, kefir, cheese, kefir, koumiss, Yakult, fermented whey drinks, and dairy based cereal foods, Indigenous fermented dairy foods fortified with fruit pulp/ herbs and their bioactive components

    Unit VI

    Cereals, soya, plant based and other functional foods: Miso, Kimchi, Saurerkraut, Sake ,Ogi, Gundruk, Natto, Doenjang, Tempheh, Douchi, Cheonggukjang, Soy based fermented foods: yoghurt, dahi, beverages and cheese,  fermented meat products.

    Unit VII

    Microbial production of Bioactive compounds: Bacteriocins, Bioactive peptides, Conjugated Linoleic Acids, gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Vitamins (Folate, Riboflavin, Vitamin B12), Low calorie sugars (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Mannitol, Trehalose), Micronutrients (Selenium, Zinc).

    Unit VIII

    Health benefits of probiotics/functional foods: Gastrointestinal disorders, Metabolic syndrome including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity, Brain health, Immunological disorders, Cancer, Health and well being in Ageing, alcoholic and non alcoholic liver disease, Reproductive and Hormonal disorders, Mental health.

    Unit IX

    Scientific Assessment of probiotics/functional foods: Role of Biomarkers, Application of Proteomics, Metabolomics, Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics Nutrigenomics in establishing scientific evidence of functional foods for imparting health benefits

    Unit X

    Regulations and Future prospects of probiotics and functional foods: Legal status of probiotics, safety and regulatory aspects and Future prospects.

    Unit XI

    Next generation probiotics (Designer probiotics): Robust probiotic strains with stress survival systems, enhanced adhesion ability and surface markers etc. and for mucosal delivery of vaccines

     Suggested Readings

     

    • GB Huffnagle. (2008). The Probiotics Revolution: The Definitive Guide to Safe, Natural Health Solutions Using Probiotic and Prebiotic Foods and Supplements. Bantam, USA.

    Robert Keith Wallace  (Author), Samantha Wallace. (2017). Gut Crisis: How Diet, Probiotics, and Friendly Bacteria Help You Lose Weight and Heal Your Body and Mind. Dharma Publication, Fairfield, USA.

    • Hae-Soo Kwak (2015) Nano- and Microencapsulation for Foods. Wiley Publishing

    v  Edward R. (Ted) Farnworth (2008) Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC Press

    v  Fermented Foods in Health and Disease Prevention. (2016) Edited by Juana Frias, Cristina Martinez-Villaluenga and Elena Peñas. Elsevier Inc.

    Dairy Microbiology

    Syllabus of M. Tech (DM) Courses

    DM-611 Microbial Morphology and Taxonomy

     Objective

    To educate the taxonomy and morphological features of the various microorganisms, viz., bacteria, fungi and viruses.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Evolution of life on earth, history and diversity of microorganisms

    Unit II

    Principles of classification and taxonomy of Eubacteria (Bacteria and Archaea): Major characteristics used in taxonomy: Cultural, Morphological, Biochemical, Physiological,Genetic and Molecular; Numerical Taxonomy (Taxometrics) and Chemotaxonomy. Assessing Microbial Phylogeny: Chronometers. Phylogenetic trees, r-RNA, DNA and proteins as indicators of phylogeny.

    Unit III

    Cell ultra-structure (prokaryotes and eukaryotes) cell-wall: structure, chemical composition, synthesis and inhibition, cell membrane, cytoplasmic inclusions, cytoskeleton, cell appendages, capsule, flagella, pili, sporulation structure of endospore, composition and function of spore constituents, induction and germination

    Unit IV

    Fungi: Distribution, Importance and recent Classification, Study of Yeasts and Moulds in Dairy Foods

    Unit V

    History, Development and Scope of Virology. Classification and Nomenclature, characteristics of Viruses (Acellular Organization and Viral Genome), Viral Reproduction, Brief account of Viroids and Prions.

    Practicals

    • Staining: Simple and differential staining; Gram’s staining, spore staining, acid-fast staining, cell wall staining, flagella staining, nucleoids staining, capsule staining, and inclusion/storage bodies staining
    • Preparation of bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts
    • Measuring dimensions of microorganisms (bacteria) using micrometry
    • Morphology of fungi
    • Detection and enumeration of bacteriophages in Cheese whey
    • Application of computer software in bacterial identification
    • Electron microscopic observation of Ultra-structure of Microbial Cell(Demonstration)

     Suggested Readings

    • Cowan, M. K. 2012. Microbiology: A Systems Approach, 3rd Edition. The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York, USA.
    • Holt, J.G., Krieg, N.R., Sneath, P.H.A., Staley, J.T. and Williams, S.T. 1997. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (9th edition). Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    • Krejer van-Rij, NJW 1998, The yeasts: A taxonomic study, 4th edn, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    • Madigan, M. T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. 2015. Brock Biology of Microorganisms.14th edition, Prentice Hall, London, U.K.
    • Prescott, LM, Harley, JP & Klein, DA 2002, Microbiology, 5th edn, McGraw Hill, New York, USA.
    • Tolaro, K.P. 2011. Foundations in Microbiology, 8th Edn., The McGraw−Hill Companies, New York, USA..

    ———x——–

     DM-612 Microbial Physiology

     Objective

    To familiarize the student with the various aspects of growth and energy generating activities of bacteria for the betterment of human life.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Bacterial growth: growth phases and kinetics, synchronous, continuous, and associative growth; factors affecting bacterial growth; growth measurement.

    Unit II

    Effect of environment on the growth of bacteria: temperature, air, osmotic pressure, pH, hydrostatic pressure, surface tension, metals, electromagnetic and other waves, sonics, various chemicals; their application in dairy industry; mechanisms of action of antimicrobials.

    Unit III

    Bacterial nutrition; nutrient media; nutritional groups of bacteria; role of growth factors; active and passive transport.

    Unit IV

    Electron transport chain: Electron transport chain; fermentation, respiration and photosynthesis

    Practicals

    • Measurement of bacterial growth by direct methods (cell number, SPC, DMC) and indirect methods (turbidometric methods, MPN, cell mass.
    • Preparation of growth curve; determination of generation time.
    • Determination of cell activity; carbohydrate fermentation; acid production/pH alteration; starch, lipid, casein and gelatin hydrolysis.
    • Effect of different factors viz., physical (temperature, pH, osmotic pressure, surface tension), chemical (dyes, antibiotics, phenol) and nutritional (amino acid supplements, vitamin supplements, protein hydrolysates, casamino acids) on bacterial growth.

     Suggested Reading

    • Moat AG, Foster JW & Spector MP. 2002. Microbial Physiology. 4th Wiley-Liss.
    • RK Poole. 2006. Advances in Microbial Physiology. Apple Academic Press (CRC Press), USA
    • Gerald Robert Seaman and Jody De Mary. 2012. Experiments in Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry. Literary Licensing, LLC, USA
    • AH Rose. 2009. Chemical Microbiology: An Introduction to Microbial Physiology. Plenum Pub. Corp.
    • Prescott’s Microbiology (10thEdition, 2017) By  Joanne Willey, Linda Sherwood and Christopher J. Woolverton
    • Microbial Physiology (2017) by Dean Watson

    ———x——–

     DM-613 Microbiology of Fluid Milk and Dairy Products

     Objective

    To impart current knowledge of basic and applied microbiological aspects of fluid milks and dairy products for improved quality and food safety.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Common microbes in milk and their significance. Microflora of mastitis milk and its importance in dairy industry. Sources of microbial contamination of raw milk and their relative importance in influencing quality of milk during production, collection, transportation and storage. Clean milk production and antimicrobial systems in raw milk. Microbial changes in raw milk during long storage. Microbiological grading of raw milk.

    Unit II                                                                                           

    Microbiological aspects of processing techniques like: bactofugation, thermization, pasteurization, sterilization, boiling, UHT, non thermal processes (pulse field) and membrane filtration of milk.  Role of psychrotrophic, mesophillic, thermophilic and thermoduric bacteria in spoilage of processed milks, their sources and prevention. Heat induced damage in bacteria and role of resuscitation in recovery of injured microbial cells. Microbiological standards (BIS/ PFA) of heat treated fluid milks.

    Unit III

    Microbiological quality of dairy products; fat rich (cream and butter), frozen (ice cream), concentrated (evaporated and condensed milk), dried milks (roller and spray dried), infant dairy foods and legal standards. Factors affecting microbial quality of these products during processing, storage and distribution. Microbiological defects associated with these products and their control.

    Unit IV                                                                      

    Microbiological quality of traditional dairy products; heat desiccated (khoa, burfi, peda, kheer), acid coagulated (paneer, chhana, rasgulla), fermented (lassi, srikhand) and frozen (kulfi). Sources of microbial contaminants and their role in spoilage.  Importance of personnel and environmental hygiene on quality of traditional milk products. Microbiological standards for indigenous dairy foods.

    Unit V                                                

    Definition of food poisonings, food infections and toxi-infections, pathogens associated with fluid milks, dairy products and their public health significance. Sources of pathogens and their prevention. Importance of biofilms, their role in transmission of pathogens in dairy products and preventive strategies.

    Practicals

    • Grading of raw milk based on SPC, coliform and dye reduction tests.
    • Effect of different storage temperatures on microbiological quality of fluid milk
    • Tests for mastitic milk and brucellosis
    • Microbiological quality evaluation of cream and butter for yeasts & molds, lipolytic and proteolytic bacteria.
    • Detection of Enterobactersakazakii in infant dairy foods.
    • Microbial evaluation of Burfi and Peda for SPC, yeast and mould counts.
    • Detection of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella,Shigellaand coagulase positive staphylococci in milk powder
    • Evaluation of ice cream for coliforms and coli
    • Microbiological quality of Paneer                                    
    • Enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic spores in condensed and sterilized milk.
    • Line testing for determining the source of contamination of dairy products.

     

    Suggested Readings

    • Osei. 2017. Handbook of Dairy Microbiology. AGri-Horti Press
    • Palmiro Poltronieri (Editor). 2017. Microbiology in Dairy Processing: Challenges and Opportunities John Wiley & Sons Inc.
    • Barbaros Eozer. 2014. Dairy Microbiology and Biochemistry: Recent Developments. CRC Press, USA
    • B A Law. 2012. Microbiology and Biochemistry of Cheese and Fermented Milks. Springer Publisher.
    • Rhea Fernandes (Editor). 2009. Microbiology Handbook: Dairy Products. RSC Publishing
    • Melanie Quin. 1989. Applied microbiology in the Dairy Industry. Hobsons Publishing PLC

    ———x——–

    DM-614 Environmental Microbiology

     Objective

    To understand the fundamentals of environmental microbiology and role of microorganisms in combating the organic pollutants in the environment.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Environmental microbiology; soil as a microbial environment, microbes in surface soils and subsurface environments; Aero-microbiology; airborne pathogens, toxins, aerosols, nature and control of bio-aerosols, aero-microbiological pathway, microbial survival in air, extramural and intramural aero-microbiology; Aquatic environments and microbial habitats.

    Unit II

    Extreme environments, low and high temperature, desiccation, UV stress, pH and environment based on chemoautotrophy; Environmental sample collection; strategies, methods, processing and storage of soil and water sample for the detection of bacteria and phages; Mechanism for the collection of air samples; Cultural methods for isolation and enumeration of bacteria and fungi.

    Unit III

    Biogeochemical cycles; carbon cycles (fixation, energy flow and respiration), nitrogen cycle (fixation, ammonia assimilation, nitrification and nitrate reduction) sulfur cycle (assimilatory sulphate reduction, sulphur mineralization, oxidation and reduction), iron cycle (in soil, sediments and marine environment); Microbially influenced metal corrosion, acid mine drainage, metal recovery and desulfurization.

    Unit IV

    Microbes and organic pollutants; environmental laws and issues concerning release of genetically engineered microbes, biodegradation process, contaminant structure and toxicity (genetic potential and bioavailability), factors affecting biodegradation (redox conditions, organic matter composition, nitrogen etc); biodegradation of organic pollutants, bioremediation (addition of oxygen, nutrient, surfactant, microbes etc).

    Unit V

    Environmentally transmitted microbial pathogens (Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter Yersinia etc) and viruses (enteric and respiratory), Indicator microorganisms (concept, total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, bacteriophage etc). Solid wastes management and waste water treatment and bio-solids reuse in food and dairy industry.

    Practicals

    • Determination of composite micro-flora (i.e. total bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds etc) of selected environmental samples from soil
    • Estimation of micro-flora (i.e. total bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds etc) of selected environmental samples from water
    • Study of micro-flora (i.e. total bacteria, yeasts and moulds etc) of selected environmental samples from air
    • Isolation of dye degrading bacteria from the selected environmental samples
    • Enrichment and isolation of plastic degrading microorganisms from environmental samples
    • Isolation of industrial effluent degrading microorganisms from the environmental samples
    • Characterization of bio-indicators from the environmental samples (total coliforms, faecal enterococci, and heterotrophic plate counts; total coliforms through MPN method; bacteriophage isolation etc)
    • Determination of biochemical oxygen demand in waste water sample
    • Visit to a sewage or an industrial effluent treatment plant Suggested Readings
    • Hurst CJ, Crawford RL, Garland JL, Lipson DA & Mills AL. 2007. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. 3rd Ed. ASM Press.
    • Maier RM, Pepper IL & Gerba CP. 2000. Environmental Microbiology. Elsevier.
    • Maier RM, Pepper IL and Gerba CP 2009 Environmental Microbiology. Elsevier Academic press, USA.
    • Ralph Mitchell and Ji‐Dong Gu. 2010. Environmental Microbiology. Wiley‐
    • AH Varnam and MG Evans. 2000. Environmental Microbiology. Manson Publishing Ltd.

    ———x——–

    DM-615 Microbiology of Processed Dairy Foods

    Objective

    To understand the microbiology of processed foods, significance of different food microorganisms, their control and other related aspects.

    Theory

    Unit I:

    Introduction to microbes in foods, history & development of food microbiology, microorganisms important in foods, microbial ecology of processed foods and food ecosystem, factors influencing microbial growth in foods: intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors

    Unit II:

    High temperature food preservation, factors affecting heat resistance in microorganisms, thermal destruction of microorganisms, low temperature food preservation, food preservation by irradiation, food preservation by drying and fermentation, modern processing techniques – ohmic heating, high pressure processing, infra-red heating, cold plasma, pulsed electric field, ultra sound etc., bio preservation of foods – concepts: metabolites of lactic acid bacteria; bacteriocins, Antifungal substances etc., protective cultures and other antimicrobials (herbs, spices and other natural antimicrobial compounds), Nanoscience in food preservation; microencapsulation

    Unit III:

    Microbial stress response in the food environment; stress adaptation, sublethal stress & injury, antibiotic resistance in food bacteria, predictive modelling for food spoilage, industrial strategies for ensuring safe foods, HACCP; GMP, GHP

    Unit IV:

    Antimicrobial packaging; concepts and development, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), intermediate moisture foods (IMF), and hurdle technology in processed foods.

    Unit V:

    New prospects and problems in processed dairy foods. Genetically modified foods.

    Practicals

    • D and Z-value calculation of common food pathogens.
    • Production of antimicrobial substances – bacteriocins.
    • Production of antifungal substances.
    • Application of bacteriocins for bio preservation of foods.
    • Application of hurdle concepts for enhanced shelf stability of processed foods.
    • Induction of bacterial cell injury and recovery of injured cells.
    • Antibiotic resistance of food pathogens.
    • Shelf life enhancement using antimicrobial packaging.

    Suggested Readings

    • Ray B. 2003. Fundamental Food Microbiology. CRC Press.
    • Ramesh C. Ray, Montet Didier. Microorganisms and Fermentation of Traditional Foods. CRC Press, U.S.A.
    • Neusely da Silva, Marta Hirotomi Taniwaki, Valéria Christina Junqueira, Neliane Silveira, Maristela da Silva do Nascimento, Renato Abeilar Romeiro Gomes. 2012. Microbiological Examination Methods of Food and Water: A Laboratory Manual. CRC Press, USA.
    • Photis Papademas. 2014. Dairy Microbiology: A Practical Approach. CRC Press.
    • Osman Erkmen, T. FarukBozoglu (2016) Food Microbiology: Principles into Practice, 2 Volume Set. Wiley Publishing
    • Barbaros Ozer, Gülsün Akdemir-Evrendilek (2014) Dairy Microbiology and Biochemistry: Recent Developments. CRC Press

    ———x——–

     DM-621 Starter Cultures and Fermented Dairy Products

     Objective

    To familiarize the students with the starter organisms, their metabolism and genetics; different types of starters, propagation, preservation and applications of starters.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Taxonomy and characteristics of starter cultures: Taxonomy and natural habitat of starter organisms; characteristics of starter organisms: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifdobacterium Enterococcus, Propionibacterium, Brevibacterium, yeasts and molds. Desirable properties of lactic acid bacteria for different fermented milk products.

    Unit II

    Metabolism and genetics of starter cultures: Carbohydrate, citrate and protein metabolism: lactose, galactose and glucose metabolism- transport of sugars across the cell boundaries, homolactic and heterolactic fermentation, other pathways of sugar metabolism, citrate transport and metabolism formation of flavouring agents from citrate fermentation, proteolytic systems and protein metabolism in lactic acid bacteria; Genetics of starter bacteria: plasmids and plasmid instability; industrially significant genes; genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through transduction; conjugation; protoplast transformation; electroporation and chromosomal integration, transposons and insertion sequences.

    Unit III

    Technology of starter cultures: Classification of starters; Single, mixed and multiple strain, mesophillic and thermophillic starter cultures; propagation and preservation of starter cultures; commercial starter preparations: concentrated and super concentrated starters; production systems for bulk cultures: Lewis, Jones and Tetra-pack systems; growth media: nutritional requirements of lactic acid bacteria, growth media formulations; PIM/PRM, pH control during culturing- external and internal pH control systems; preservation of bulk starter cultures- frozen and freeze dried, spray dried cultures; direct vat starter cultures

     Unit IV

    Starter failure and inhibition: Growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria by antibiotics, bacteriocins; bacteriophages, cleaning and sanitizing agents and naturally occurring antimicrobial systems in raw milk; sources, types and characteristics of phages associated with starters, morphology an taxonomy, phage host interaction, prevention and control of phages during starter handling and fermented milk products manufacturing, mechanisms of phage resistance in lactic acid bacteria, inhibitory substances produces by lactic acid bacteria.

    Unit V

    Microbiology of fermented dairy products: Classification of fermented milks: lactic, yeast-lactic, mold-lactic fermented milk products; role of starter cultures in manufacturing of Dahi, Lassi, Yoghurt, acidophilus milk, cultured buttermilk, Koumiss, Kefir and chesses: microbiology of fresh and ripened cheeses, accelerated cheese ripening; Microbiological spoilage  and safety of fermented  dairy products; concepts of   probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, bioactive milk peptides and their application  in value addition in fermented dairy products.

     Practicals

    • Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milks products.
    • Examination of purity and activity of starter cultures.
    • Preservation of starter cultures by freeze drying and other methods.
    • Preparation of concentrated starters and quality evaluation.
    • Inhibition of starters by antibiotic residues and other inhibitors.
    • Production of bacteriocine by lactic acid bacteria.
    • Preparation and quality evaluation of dahi, lassi, yoghurt and kefir
    • Examinations of microbial changes during ripening of cheddar cheese

     Suggested Readings

    • Wood BJ & Warner PJ. (Eds.). 2003. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Springer- Verlag.
    • Marth EH and Steele JL Applied Dairy Microbiology.Marcel Deker Inn. New York.
    • Prajapati, J. B. and Behare, P. V. (2018). Textbook of Dairy Microbiology: Microbiology of Starter Culture Page no. 147-183. Published by Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture, ICAR, ISBN: 978-81-7164-182-6.
    • Barbara Speranza, Antonio Bevilacqua, Maria Rosaria Corbo and Milna Sinigaglia (2017). Starter Cultures in Food Production. Wiley Black Well, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, UK.
    • M. T. El-Mansi, C. F. A. Bryce, Arnold L. Demain, A.R. Allman (Edited) (2012) Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition CRC.
    • Paul McSweeney Patrick Fox Paul Cotter David Everett (eds.) (2017). Cheese – Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 4th Academic Press.

    ———x——–

     DM 622 Microbial Genetics

     Objective

    To understand the fundamentals of structure, functions and synthesis of macromolecules and their genetic manipulation.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Introduction and History, Macromolecules: DNA, RNA, their structure, types, organization, function and their properties, DNA replication

    Unit II

    Gene Expression and its regulation in Prokaryotes – Transcription Genetic Code Translation and; Negative and positive regulation of gene expression; Operon Models (lac)

    Unit III

    Mutations – Spontaneous and Induced Types of mutations, Mutagenic agents – Chemical, Damage and Repair systems operating in prokaryotes

    Unit IV

    Plasmids and their properties, transposable elements; Bacterial Recombination-Transformation, Conjugation and Transduction

    Unit V

    Fundamental aspects of genetic engineering/ recombinant DNA technology – Resriction enzymes, Plasmid Vectors (cloning as well as expression vectors), PCR and Real Time PCR; Application of genetic engineering in dairy and food industry

    Practicals

    • Isolation and quantitative estimation of chromosomal DNA from E.coli and
    • Lactobacillus by mini prep method.
    • Isolation and quantitative estimation of chromosomal DNA from Lactobacillus by mini prep method
    • Isolation of plasmid DNA from coli by miniprep method.• Calcium chloride induced transformation of E.coli hosts with plasmids
    • Calcium chloride induced transformation of coli hosts with plasmids
    • Curing of plasmids with chemical mutagens (Ethidium Bromide) and elevated temperature
    • Induction of random mutations in coli / Lactobacillus either by UV irradiation or chemical mutagens
    • Use of restriction enzymes cleavage and ligation of DNA fragments
    • PCR based detection of microorganisms
    • Demo of Real Time PCR machine

     Suggested Reading

    • Synder L & Champness W. 2003. Molecular Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Publ.
    • Uldis N Streips & Ronald E Yasbin (Eds.). 2004. Modern Microbial Genetics. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Watson JD. 2003. Molecular Biology of Genes. W.A. Benjamin.
    • Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (7th Edition, 2010), authored by Keith Wilson and John Walker and published by Cambridge University Press India Pvt Ltd.
    • Bansal MP. 2012. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology: Basic Experimental Protocols. Teri Press – New Delhi.
    • Molecular Biology of the Gene (2017) by James D. Watson, A. Baker Tania, P. BellStephen, Gann Alexander, Levine Michael and Losick Richard

    ———x——–

     DM-623     Microbiological Quality Assurance

     Objective

    To impart knowledge on requirements for establishment of quality assurance facilities in food industry

     Theory

    Unit I

    Importance of Microbiological Quality and Safety Assurance System in Dairy Industry: Principles of Quality and Safety Management Systems; Process approach based QMS (ISO-9001) and applications of HACCP system in dairy industry; TQM tools and techniques including Six sigma, 5S principle, kaizen;  Plant hygiene and sanitation in dairy industry.

    Unit II

    General principles for the establishment and application of microbiological criteria for dairy foods: Definition, purpose and components of Microbiological criteria; Mandatory and advisory criteria; Sampling methods; Two and three class attributes for sampling plan (ICMSF); Establishment of microbiological standards, guidelines and specifications for different milk and milk products recommended by ICMSF, Codex, PFA, BIS.

    Unit III

    Enumeration and detection of indicator organisms and dairy pathogens: Indicator Organisms; Selection criteria for their use as quality and safety indicators; Conventional and rapid detection methods including commercial detection kits for indicator organisms and pathogenic bacteria in milk and milk products.

    Unit IV

    Microbial bio-sensor for monitoring pathogens and non-microbial contaminants in dairy foods: Definition, history, basic characteristics, classification and components of microbial bio-sensors; Detector system i.e. Electrochemical; Optical; Mechanical devices; Application of microbial bio-sensor in monitoring pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic residues andaflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products.

    Unit V

    Establishment and accreditation of QA Lab in dairy processing unit: Introductory information on Quality assurance lab in dairy processing unit; Bio-safety definition, principles and safety levels; Standard microbiological practices, safety equipment (primary barrier), facility design (secondary barrier), medical surveillance criteria and biological waste disposal; FDA requirements for establishing biosafety laboratory in dairy industry and its accreditation as per ISO.

    Practicals

    • Conventional and rapid techniques for microbiological evaluation of dairy products for Aerobic plate count, Yeast & Mold Count, Psychrotropic, Thermoduric and Thermophilic count, Spore count, Dye reduction test, Direct Microscopic Count, Thermotolerant Coliform and Enterobacteriaceae
    • Bacteriological analysis of dairy water for Aerobic plate counts and Coliform counts (MPN).
    • Detection of faecal and non–faecal coliform and faecal streptococci in dairy plant.
    • Detection of antibiotic residues, aflatoxin M1 in milk using biosensor based micro-techniques.
    • Detection and enumeration of aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes in dairy products.
    • Evaluation of HACCP system in the preparation of different milk and milk products.
    • Evaluation of common sanitizing agents in dairy plant by capacity and suspension test.
    • Microbiological tests for assessing equipments and personnel hygiene by rinse and swab techniques.

     Suggested readings

    • Brown M Stringer Microbiological, 2002. Risk Assessment in Food Processing. Woodhead Publishing 1st Edition
    • Patel P. (Ed.). (2012). Rapid analysis techniques in food microbiology. Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Food Microbiology Laboratory, (2004) Lynne McLands Borough and published by CRC Press, USA
    • Bacterial Pathogenesis (1st edition, 2017) edited by Nordenfelt, Pontus, Collin, Mattias and published by Springer
    • Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis. 2012. HACCP and ISO 22000: Application to Foods of Animal Origin (Institute of Food Science and Technology Series). Wiley-Blackwell
    • Onsando Osiemo. 2012. Food Safety Standards in International Trade: The Case of the EU and the COMESA. Routledge Publisher

    ———x——–

    DM- 624 Probiotics for Health Foods

     Objective

    To familiarize the students with the concept of probiotics and their application in human health

     Theory

    Unit I

    History and definition of Probiotics; Commercially available probiotic strains and probiotic dairy products                                      Unit II

    Selection and identification of new strains of probiotics: Isolation of probiotic organisms from different niches; selection on the basis of probiotic attributes as per FAO/WHO guidelines; Identification of probiotics by molecular tools like PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing; DNA Finger printing by RAPD and Ribotyping

    Unit III

    Mechanism of action of probiotics: Colonization in the gut; Adhesion to intestinal mucosal surface – role of surface proteins; Production of antimicrobial substances – organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins; Pathogen exclusion; immuno-modulatory action; Impact on gut microbial balance; Host microbe interaction and their cross talk; Role of biomarkers for probiotic functionality

    Unit IV

    Application in Human Health and Disease: Probiotics for management of diseases – gastro-intestinal and antibiotic associated diarrohea; Inflammatory diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel disorder, Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s; Respiratory, Urogenital, Life style, Allergy; Liver, AIDS / HIV, Cancer and antitumor effects

    Unit V

    Dairy based foods as carrier of probiotics: Dairy based products as delivery vehicles – Stability towards manufacturing conditions, enhancing stability through encapsulation or drying strategies for lyophilized formulations etc., co-culture compatibility with starters, minimum effective dose, large scale production of probiotic biomass through fermentation for application in foods and as drugs / supplements

    Unit VI

    Designer probiotics: Genetically modified probiotics as oral vaccines, enhanced adhesion properties and health promoting functions

    Unit VII

    Safety, human trials and regulatory guidelines: In vitro and in vivo safety assessment of probiotics; designing human trials; regulatory guidelines –   US, Canada, Europe and India

    Practicals

    • Isolation of probiotic organisms from human milk and faecal samples
    • Tentative identification by microscopic examination, catalase and biochemical tests
    • Identification of isolates by genus and species specific PCR
    • Evaluation of bacterial isolates for probiotic properties
    • Acid tolerance; Bile tolerance; Hydrophobicity; Antimicrobial activity
    • Survival of probiotic culture in fermented dairy products
    • Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria

     Suggested Reading

    v  GB Huffnagle. 2008. The Probiotics Revolution: The Definitive Guide to Safe, Natural Health Solutions Using Probiotic and Prebiotic Foods and Supplements. Bantam, USA.

    Robert Keith Wallace  (Author), Samantha Wallace. 2017. Gut Crisis: How Diet, Probiotics, and Friendly Bacteria Help You Lose Weight and Heal Your Body and Mind. Dharma Publication, Fairfield, USA.

    v  Min-Tze Liong. 2011. Probiotics: Biology, Genetics and Health Aspects. Springer.

    • Probiotics and Prebiotics in Animal Health and Food Safety (2018) by Di Gioia, Diana. -Biavati, Bruno.
    • Probiotics and Prebiotics: Current Research and Future Trends (2015) by Koen Venema
    • Probiotics in Food Safety and Human Health (2006) by Goktepe, Ipek. -Juneja, Vijay K.-Ahmedna, Mohamed.

                                                  ———x——–

     DM- 625 Research Techniques in Dairy Microbiology

     Objective

    To impart knowledge and skills related to microbiological analytical systems in microbiology and related sciences

     Theory

    Unit I 

    Microscopy: principles, design and functions of bright field, dark field, phase contrast and fluorescence microscope; principle, design and application of transmission and scanning electron microscopes for the study of sub-cellular organization and microstructure of dairy foods

    Unit II 

    Techniques for protein analysis and other molecular separation: electrophoresis, chromatography, ultracentrifugation; Enzyme analyses and substrate determination methods

    Unit III 

    Molecular Biology Techniques for nucleic acid analysis: amplification, investigation of mutations and gene expression

    Unit IV

    Aerobic and Anaerobic culturing techniques for isolation of obligate and facultative organisms

    Unit V 

    Use of animal models in toxicity studies

    Practicals

    • Familiarization with the construction and design of a compound microscope; use of light microscope accessories; microscopic analysis of different types of bacteria by bright field and dark field; phase contrast and fluorescence microscopes
    • Disruption of bacterial cells by ultra-sonification
    • Demonstration of chromatographic techniques
    • Demonstration of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques
    • Demonstration of use of animal models in toxicity studies,
    • Demonstration of PCR technique as a tool for identification and characterization of

    microorganism

     Suggested Readings

    • Douglas B. Murphy.2001.Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging, Wiley-Liss, inc., USA.
    • John F. T. Spencer,& Allicia L Ragout Leo M. L. Nollet, Fidel Toldra. 2013. Food analysis by HPLC, Third edition, CRC press, Taylor and Francis group, Florida, USA.
    • Leo M. L. Nollet, Fidel Toldra. 2013. Food analysis by HPLC, Third edition, CRC press, Taylor and Francis group, Florida, USA.
    • A. Nasser Hajibagheri.1999. Electron microscopy methods and protocols, methods in molecular biology series, # 117.Humana Press Inc., Totowa, New Jersey, USA.
    • Harisha. 2010. Biotechnology procedures and experiments handbook. Infinity science press LLC, Hingham, MA 02043, USA.
    • Singer, S. 2001. Experiments in Applied Microbiology, Academic Press, New York, USA.

    ———x——–

     DM-626 Microbial Fermentation Technology

     Objective

    To disseminate recent information on basic and applied aspects of fermentation technology and its industrial application to the students along with hands on training.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Introduction to fermentation. Historical perspective, Fermentation as a means for enhancing shelf life of foods and pickles.

    Unit II

    Rate of microbial growth and death, Fermentation kinetics, mass transfer diffusion, membrane transport, dialysis, nutrient uptake.

    Unit III

    Fermenter/ Bioreactor design, operation, measurement and control in fermentation. Aeration and Agitation in fermentation; Oxygen requirement, Adsorption coefficient bubble aeration, mechanical agitation, correlation between mass transfer coefficients and operating variables.

    Unit IV

    Types of fermentation, submerged / solid state, Batch / continuous fermentation. In situ sterilization, Scale up in fermentation, Product recovery, Role of Immobilization, Downstream processing for Recombinant proteins and bio-assays

    Unit V

    Industrial production of Lactic acid, Penicillin, Betagalactosidase, aminoacids, vitamins, ethanol.

    Practicals

    • Follow up of bacterial growth in batch culture. Different methods of microbial cultivation.
    • Fermenter operation and measurement.
    • Production of starters, baker yeast culture, alcohol, alcoholic beverages.

    Suggested Readings

    • Kulandaivelu, S. Janarthanan (2012). Practical Manual on Fermentation Technology. I K International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd;
    • P F Stanbury Dr. Whitaker (2008) Principles of Fermentation Technology, Elsevier; 2 editions.
    • Nduka Okafor, Benedict C. Okeke  Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (Text Book), Second Edition (2017), published by CRC press, USA
    • Principles and Applications of Fermentation Technology.(2019) Edited by Arindam Kuila and Vinay Sharma John Wiley & Sons; 1 edition (18 March 2019)

    ———x——–

     Syllabus of DM courses for B. Tech (DAIRY TECHNOLOGY)

    5th DEAN’S COMMITTEE SYLLABUS

     DM-111 Fundamentals of Microbiology

     Theory

    Overview of history and scope of microbiology: Discovery of Microorganisms and  Microscopy (types, working principles and applications); Theories of Biogenesis and abiogenesis; Contributions of Leeuwenhoek, Pasteur, Tyndal, Joseph Lister, Robert Koch, Edward Jenner and Alexander Fleming; Scope and application of microbiology in fields like Dairy, Food, Pharmaceutical, Industrial, Medical and agriculture. Classification of Microbes: Microbial classification systems, numerical taxonomy, General properties and principles of microbial classification, Whittaker’s five kingdom and Carl Woese’s three domain classification system; Systematics of bacteria and Bergey’s  manual  of  systematic  bacteriology, Phylogenetic tree. Procaryotic and Eucaryotic microorganisms: Structure and  functions  of  prokaryotic  cells; Differences  between  prokaryotes  and  eukaryotes; Differences between cell wall of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria;  Structure of Archeal cell wall. Microbial  growth  and  nutrition: Bacterial growth curve;  factors  affecting  growth  of  bacteria,  direct and indirect methods of measurement of  bacterial  growth; Bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents; Common nutrient requirements and nutritional types of  microorganisms.  Diversity of Microorganisms: Viruses: Structure and Classification; Bacteriophages; Differences between viruses and bacteria; Fungi: Classification of Fungi; Reproduction in Fungi; Protozoa and algae. Microbial Ecology and Environmental Microbiology: Microflora of air, soil and water and Microbes of Extreme environment like Archea. Basics of Microbial  Genetics and Host-Microbe interactions: DNA as the  genetic  material,  Structure  of  DNA/ RNA, DNA replication, transcription and translation; Basic concepts of immunology; Role of immune system in governing host-microbe interactions, Microbial Commensalism, Colonization, Infection, Disease and Vaccines

    Practicals

    • General instruction for microbiological laboratory.
    • Microscope- simple  and compound;
    • Microbiological equipments;  autoclave,  hot  air  oven,  incubator,  centrifuge, colorimeter,  laminar  airflow,  membrane
    • Simple staining- methylene blue; crystal violet; negative staining.
    • Differential staining (Gram, spore, acid fast).
    • Motility of microorganisms – hanging drop technique.

     DM-122 Microbiology of Fluid Milk

     Theory

    Microbes associated with raw milk: Significance of specific groups of microorganisms in milk i.e. psychrotrophic, mesophilic, thermoduric and thermophillic bacteria their morphological and biochemical characteristics and classification. Microbial contaminants in raw milk, their sources during various stages of production – milking, chilling, storage and transportation with special reference to psychrotrophic microorganisms; Microbiological changes in bulk refrigerated raw milk. Sources of contamination and microbial spoilage of raw milk: Microbial contaminants of raw milk supplies, their sources during various stages of production i.e. milking, chilling, storage and transportation with special reference to psychrotrophic microorganisms and preventive measures. Types of microbial spoilage – souring, curdling, bitty cream, proteolysis, lipolysis, abnormal flavors and discolouration. Mastitis milk – types of mastitis, causative micro-flora of mastitis, compositional and microbiological changes during mastitis infection, their processing and public health. Concept of clean milk production: Hygienic milk production system; Cleaning and sanitation of udder, animal, utensils, equipments and dairy farm environment; Microbiological quality of milk produced in organized and un-organized sector in India and comparative information in developed world; Microflora of aseptically drawn milk and its natural antimicrobial systems – immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoproxidase (LP) system. Microbiological aspects of fluid milk: Pasteurization, boiling, sterilization, ultra high temperature (UHT), non thermal (pulsed field) micro-filtration, bactofugation, standardization and homogenization. Significance of heat resistant and post processing contaminants in fluid milk with special reference to proteases and lipase enzymes and their role in spoilage of processed milk. Bio-film formation during processing and their control measures. Public health aspects of fluid milk: Microbial zoonotic diseases transmitted through fluid milk; Milk borne diseases -food infection, intoxication and toxi- infection caused E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella species, Campylobacter etc. Microbiological grading and legal standards of raw and processed milk.

    Practicals

    • Morphological examination of common dairy microorganisms (size and shape, arrangement and sporulation).
    • Estimation of microbial load in raw milk by standard plate count (SPC) and dye reduction tests (MBRT, RRT).
    • Grading of processed/ market milk by total viable count, coliform and methylene blue reduction time.
    • Enumeration of psychrotrophic, thermophillic, thermoduric and spore forming bacteria in raw and market milk.
    • Detection of sources of contamination: Air, water, utensils, equipment and personnel, line testing.
    • Spoilage of milk caused by microorganisms: souring, sweet curdling, gassiness, lipolysis, ropiness, proteolysis and discolouration.
    • Detection of mastitis milks: pH, SLST, somatic cell count, chloride content, Hotis test and CAMP test.
    • Detection and estimation of coliforms: presumptive, rapid coliform and IMViC Test.

     DM-221 Starter Cultures and Fermented Milk Products

     Theory

    Types, metabolism and propagation of starter cultures:History, classification and importance of starter Cultures in dairy industry; Single, multiple, defined and mixed strain starters; Probiotics and Special cultures like exopolysaccharide production; Propagation of starter cultures-concentrates – direct bulk and direct vat starter cultures, factors affecting propagation; Metabolism of starter cultures (carbohydrate, protein, citrate) and production of metabolites and antibacterial substances; methods of starter distillates their merits/demerits.

    Activity, Purity, Preservation of Starters and Starter Failure:Quality and activity tests for dairy starters and their preservation- methods (liquid, spray drying, vacuum drying, freeze-drying, frozen concentrate, concentrated dried cultures), merits and demerits; factors affecting the survival of cultures during preservation; Defects in starters and their control; Starter failures- effect of antibiotic residues, sanitizers and bacteriophages. Phages-life cycle, sources, prevention, chemical and mechanically protected systems. Role of Starters in fermented milks:Role of starters in the preparation of various fermented milks; Types of fermented milks – dahi, yoghurt, acidophilus milk; different types of dahi and yoghurt; preparation; defects and their control. Kefir and koumiss : origin and characteristics; microbiology of kefir grains; Other fermented milks such as Bulgarian milk, cultured buttermilk, Leben, Villi and Yakult; Microbiology of fermented milk products; their nutritional and therapeutic significance. Chesse Starters:Classification, desirable properties, Artisanal and adjunct cheese cultures, primary and secondary flora of cheese; biochemical changes during ripening, bacterial and mold ripened cheeses: soft, semi-soft, semi-hard, hard, Brick and Brie cheese, Camembert and Roquefort cheese; Rennet: rennet substitutes, microbial rennet and recombinant chymosin

    Practicals

    • Testing purity of starter cultures by gram’s staining, catalase test; creatine test.
    • Testing starter activity by dye reduction tests, Horrall-Elliker, WhiteHead& Cox test.
    • Preparation of single and mixed starter cultures.
    • of homo-fermentation and hetero-fermentation separately and in combination.
    • Preservation of starter cultures by freeze-drying techniques.
    • Preparation of concentrated starter (DVS).
    • Effect of physical factors (temperature, pH, Salt and Sugar) on dairy starters.
    • milk for presence of inhibitory substances using stearothermophilus and S. thermophilus as indicator organisms
    • Effect of presence of antibiotic residues in milk on starter activity.
    • Evaluation of associative growth of Starter cultures in milk.
    • Detection of Bacteriophages in cheese whey by plaque assay method.
    • Preparation and microbial examination of dahi, yoghurt, cultured butter milk, acidophilus milk and kefir.
    • Analysis of cheese for total spore and anaerobic spore count.
    • Microbiological analysis of cheddar cheese at different stages of manufacture of (storage and ripening).

    ——–x——–

     DM-222 Microbiology of Dairy Products

     Theory

    Microbiology of Cream and ButterMicro-environment and impact of critical process factors on entry of spoilage and pathogenic organisms in cream and butter; Microbiological aspects including defects in pasteurized (ripened/unripened cream), sterilized and UHT cream; Factors influencing the microbial growth during batch/continuous butter making process; Microbial Defects in butter – Bacterial/mold discoloration, enzymatic deterioration and their control measures; Regulatory microbiological standards. Microbiology of Condensed, Evaporated and Dried products: Type of microorganisms associated with condensed, evaporated and dried products, their growth/ survival during manufacture and storage; Microbial defects – Bacterial thickening / Mold button formation in SCM; Gassiness/bloating, Bacterial coagulation (Sour and sweet), Bitterness, Fishy flavor in evaporated milk; pre-heating/DSI temperature and their impact on microflora of dried products; Effect of reconstitution on microbial quality of milk powder including baby foods and survivability of pathogens; Regulatory microbiological standards

    Microbiology of Ice Cream and Frozen desserts: Microenvironment in ice cream, microbiological quality of ingredients, critical process factors and their impact on entry of pathogens in ice cream and frozen desserts, their survival during storage, food poisoning out breaks and legal standards. Microbiology of Indigenous Milk Products: Predominance of spoilage and pathogenic organisms in khoa and khoa based sweets – burfi, peda, gulabjamun, etc., paneer, Chhanna and Chhanna based sweets – rasogulla; kheer, shrikhand, dahi, kulfietc.; Factors affecting the microbiological quality in reference to production, processing, storage and distribution; Microbial safety in relation to potential pathogens and their public health significance; Microbial defects, control measures and legal standards; Active packaging concepts and role in bio-preservation.

    Practicals

    • Microbiological examination of raw, pasteurized, sterilized and UHT cream for Standard plate count (SPC) as well as lipolytic and coliform counts, direct microscopic count (DMC), dye reduction tests and sterility test.
    • Microbiological examination of salted and unsalted butter for SPC, psychrotrophic, lipolytic, coliforms and yeast and mold count; K.Q test.
    • Microbiological examination of concentrated milk for SPC, coliforms, spores, yeast and mold, thermoduric and thermophilic counts.
    • Microbiological examination of dried milks for SPC, coliforms, aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, Salmonella, Sulphite reducing clostridia and Staphylococcal enterotoxins.
    • Microbiological examination of ice-cream and other frozen desserts for SPC, coliforms and Staphylococcal counts; Detection of Salmonella spp./E. coli.
    • Microbiological examination of khoa for SPC, coliforms and staphylococcal counts besides yeast and mold counts.
    • Microbiological examination of paneer and shrikhand for SPC, Spores, coliforms, yeast and molds and Staphylococcal counts. Microbiological examination of packaging materials for SPC, Spores and Yeast and mold counts.

    ———x——–

     DM-311 Quality and Safety Monitoring in Dairy Industry

     Theory

    Consumer Awareness about Microbiological Quality and Safety of Dairy Foods: Changing scenario; Concepts of quality control, quality assurance and food safety; Global quality and food safety standards, Integrated food law, its main features and functions. Introduction to FoodSafety Management System: Concepts of Quality Management System (QMS)–ISO: 9000:2000; Principles of QMS; Standard requirements for QMS; HACCP concept and principle with special reference to biological hazards in dairy foods, TQM tools and techniques. Microbiological RiskAnalysis Concepts:Risk assessment, risk management and risk communication; risk profiling of dairy products; Microbiological criteria and two and three class sampling plan / guidelines; Bio-safety concepts in handling of dairy pathogens and setting up of a microbiological/ pathogen lab in a dairy plant. Rapid Enumeration Techniques: Enumeration principles and procedure for rapid detection of predominant hygiene indicator organisms and pathogens like E. coli (E. coli 0157:H7), Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Role of  Biosensors for monitoring hygiene and safety of dairy foods: Detection of antibiotic residues in milk –Delvo SP, MDR test,  penzyme test, charm assay, lateral flow assay (ROSA test) etc. Detection of aflatoxins, pesticides other inhibitors etc. and their public health importance in dairy foods. Plant and equipment hygiene:Concepts of hygiene and sanitation, microbial quality of water and environmental hygiene in dairy plant, chlorination of dairy water supply, quality of air, personnel hygiene, treatment and disposal of waste water and effluents.

    Practicals

    • Rapid detection of total plate count, yeast and mold counts, Coliform, coli, Enterococci, Enterobacteriacae count using D- count and 3M Petrifilm kits.
    • Rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria based on antigen antibody principle: Staphylococcal enterotoxins, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella using VIDAS system.
    • Rapid detection of antibiotic residues in milk usingDelvo SP, MDR test, Charm assay, Lateral flow assay (ROSA test).
    • Rapid detection of aflatoxin M1/ pesticides residues in milk usingCharm Assay, Lateral Flow Assay (ROSA test) / Enzyme Inhibition Assay using Luminometer.
    • Evaluation of common sanitizing agents used in dairy plants by a) suspension b) capacity test.
    • Microbiological tests for assessing Environmental, equipment and personnel hygiene by swab and rinse methods
    • Determination of BOD in dairy waste water.
    • Quality evaluation by HACCP in the preparation of dairy products.

    ———x——–

    DM-321 Food and Industrial Microbiology 

    Theory

    Scope of food microbiology: Basic aspects, history and scope of food microbiology. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect microbial growth in different foods.

    Microbial Spoilage of foods: Microbial spoilage of fruits, fruit juices, vegetables, cereals, meat, poultry, sea foods, carbonated soft drinks, canned foods; Sources of contamination; Control of spoilage. Food preservation: Principles of food preservation: physical methods viz. low temperature and high temperature preservation (D, Z and F Values); Drying Methods; Chemical preservatives, Natural antimicrobial compounds and bio- preservation; Mode of action of various preservation methods on microbes. Fermentation processes: Fermentation processes : Historical development, the range, components and types (i.e. submerged, surface and solid state fermentation); criteria for selection of industrially important microorganisms; preservation and improvement of industrially important micro-organisms using metabolic engineering/genetic engineering; media for industrial process; upstream and downstream processing. Types of fermenters: Fermenters: types (batch, fed batch and continuous), functions, design and control; sterilization; growth rate analysis, estimation of biomass; difference in chemostat and turbidostat. Microbial production of industrial products: Immobilization of enzymes/cells; Microorganisms and processes involved in the production of single cell protein and industrial alcohol, beer and wine; organic acids (citric and lactic), enzymes (protease, lipase and rennet), vitamin (B12), antibiotics and bacteriocins; and fermented whey beverages.

    Practicals

    • Microbiological examination of: 1) fresh and canned fruits, vegetables and juices; 2) flour and bread; and 3) eggs and meat.
    • Isolation of psychrophilic, salt and sugar tolerant microorganisms from foods.
    • Isolation of industrially important microorganisms from environment.
    • Determination of Z, D and F values.
    • Production and assaying of microbial enzymes (protease/ lipase).
    • Production of lactic acid from whey.
    • Production of nisin and assaying the antimicrobial activity of the culture.
    • Design and control of a table-top and 10 liter lab fermenter (Demonstration).
    • Production of ethyl alcohol from molasses and whey by yeasts.
    • Production of fermented whey beverages.
    • Educational tour to food processing/ fermentation industries.

    ———x——–

     

    SYLLABUS OF FOOD SAFETY AND QUALITY ASSURANCE (FSQA) COURSES

                                             Ph. D Courses

     FS-723 Advances in Food Safety of Dairy Foods

     Objectives

    To impart current knowledge pertaining to microbial risk assessment of dairy pathogens and their safety concern in dairy foods.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Milk borne diseases, epidemiology and surveillance in dairy products: Current trends, incidence and surveillance of milk borne diseases; Changing patterns in epidemiology, agricultural and food manufacturing practices, transmission and susceptibility.

    Unit II

    General mechanism of microbial pathogenesis: Food borne infection by colonization and adhesion factors like pilli or fimbriae, adhesion proteins, biofilm formation; Invasion and intracellular residence; Phagocytosis, invasion mediated induced phagocytosis; Iron acquisition; Motility and chemotaxis, invasion of immune system; Intoxication; Toxi-infection, structure and function of exotoxins and endotoxin; Genetic regulation and secretary system for virulence factors.

    Unit III

    Risk assessment of dairy pathogen: Growth and survival characteristics of dairy pathogens namely E. coli, Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazaki, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia enterocolitica, Streptococcus sp., L. monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Brucella sp., Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, toxigenicfungi and viruses in milk and milk products, their pathology of illness, mode of transmission, incidence of illness, virulence and infectivity.

    Unit IV

    Microbiological risk profile of dairy foods: Hazard identification and characterization in dairy products; Evidence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in milk and milk products; Risk factors affecting microbial safety of raw and processed dairy foods; Exposer assessment and risk characterization; Attribution of food-borne illness to dairy products; Risk management issues and control strategies for dairy products.

     

    Suggested Readings

    • Bhunia AK 2008 Foodborne Microbial Pathogens: Mechanisms and Pathogenesis. Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA.

    v  Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals (2018). Stefan Schwarz (Professor of veterinary medicine), Lina Maria Cavaco, Jianzhong Shen, Frank M. Aarestrup and published by ASM Press,

    v  Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment. Charles N. Haas, Joan B. Rose, Charles P. Gerba John Wiley & Sons, 09-Jun-2014 – Technology & Engineering.

    v  Indira T. Kudva, Tracy Nicholson (2016). Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens. ASM Press.

    v  D. Scott McVey, Melissa Kennedy, M. M. Chengappa (2013). Veterinary Microbiology John Wiley & Sons,

    v  Charles Yoe (2016). Principles of Risk Analysis: Decision Making Under Uncertainty. Publisher – Technology & Engineering

    • William HS and Michael PD 2009 Compendium of the Microbiological spoilage of food and Beverage. Springer Science. Heidelberg, London.

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    M.Tech Courses

    FS- 611 Basic Concepts of Quality Assurance and Food Safety System

     Objective

    To imparts training for basic concepts of quality assurance and food safety system in food industry.

     Theory

    Unit I

    Concepts of Quality Control, Quality Assurance and Food Safety: Basic Definition and Terminology; new quality and food safety approaches: The Changing Scenario; Global Considerations- Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC); Sanitary and phytosanitary standards (SPS) and Technical to Barrier and Trade (TBT) Agreements; Quality control Vs. Quality assurance; Concepts of Hygiene and Sanitation: Good Agriculture Practices (GAP) / Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) / Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Distribution Practices (GDP) concept etc.

    Unit II

    HACCP concept and principle: History and steps involved in application of HCCP in dairy unit; Establishment of a multi-disciplinary HACCP team; Product description; Identify intended use; Construct a process flow diagram; On-site verification of process flow diagram; Principles of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control point (HACCP) Concepts; HACCP plans and implementation of Operation Risk control; CCPs’, Traceability; Example of HACCP application in liquid milk; ice cream, pasteurised butter; dried products, cheese, cereals, fruits and vegetables, meat and meat products etc.

    Unit III

    Introduction to Quality Management Systems (QMS): Basic Definition and Terminology; Structure and General Principles; Benefits of applying QMS in food unit; ISO: 9000:2000–QMS Fundamentals and Standards; Guidelines for performance.

    Unit IV

    Concepts, principle and Standard Requirements of QMS–ISO 9000:2000: Process-based QMS concept and Principles; Key benefits of its Application into process, product and system; Standard requirements for QMS – ISO 9001:2000; Food Safety Management System (FSMS) – ISO 22000: Requirements; Goal of ISO 22000 and Methodology; Prerequisite programs (PRPs); Operational prerequisite programs (OPRPs); application of QMS in food processing unit with practical examples.

    Unit V

    TQM tools and techniques: Six Sigma methodology (DMAIC and DMADV); Lean Manufacturing; Lean Six Sigma; Kaizen; Total Productive Maintenance (TPM); 5S principle; PDCA Cycles; Quality circles.

     Unit VI

    Environmental and Laboratory Management System: Evolution, concept, policies and Elements of EMS, Requirements of ISO 14001 and its methodology development and implementation; Laboratory Management System (LMS) as per ISO 17025; History, Fundamental of Laboratory Organization/Management, Quality Assurance and Designing; NABL Accreditation of Food Laboratory.

    Unit VII

    Management Systems Auditing: Audit as per ISO 19011; Audit Types and process, Key stages during Auditing: Initiating the Audit, Pre-assessment visits, Document Review, Preparing for On-site Audit activities, Reporting on Audit, Non-conformity Report, Audit Completion, Corrective Action, Follow-up and Surveillance visits.

    Unit VII

    Statistical Quality Control (SQC): Principle and concept of SQC; Definition of SQC program standards, Precision; Accuracy; Variability Displaying Data; Control Charts; Pareto analysis; Rating Scales etc.

    Practicals

    • Microbiological tests/ rapid assessment of equipment’s, personnel and environmental hygiene in a food processing unit.
    • Hazard analysis and CCPs determination for milk and food products: liquid milk; ice cream, pasteurized butter; dried products, cheese, cereals, fruits and vegetables etc.
    • Development of HACCP plan for CCPs monitoring, correction and preventive action schedule preparation and documentation.
    • Identification of clauses; planning pre requisite programme (PRPs); and OPRPs for ISO 22000: 2005 implementation in dairy unit.
    • Preparation of audit schedule and to conduct an internal audit on QMS, HACCP and laboratory management system.
    • Development of quality Plan for Kaizen; 5S principle and their implementation in food processing unit.
    • Control charts and Pareto analysis of standard plate count and coli in indigenous dairy products.
    • Visit to any food processing plant for QMS/HACCP demonstration under field condition.

     Suggested Readings

    • Chandan R. C., Kilara A. and Shah, N. (Eds.). (2009). Dairy processing and quality assurance. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Haider S. I. (2011). Environmental management system 14001: 2004. Hand book of transition with CD ROM. CRC Press Taylor & Francis group.
    • Herschdoerfer S. (Ed.). (2012). Quality control in the food industry (Vol. 2). Elsevier.
    • International Standards ISO 22000. Food safety management systems- requirements for any organization in the food chain. Ref. No. 22000-2005 (E). Switzerland.
    • International Standards ISO 9001. Quality management systems- Requirements for any organization. Reference number ISO 9001:2008 (E) Switzerland.
    • ISO 14001:2004 Environmental management systems – Requirements with guidance for use.
    • ISO 14001:2004, Environmental management systems-Requirements with guidance for use.
    • ISO 19011:2002, Guidelines for quality and/or environmental management systems auditing.
    • ISO 2007, The ISO survey of ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 Certifications: 16th cycle, ISO, Geneva.
    • ISO/IEC 17011: 2004; Conformity assessment, general requirements for accreditation bodies accrediting conformity assessment bodies.
    • ISO/IEC 17025: 2005; General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.
    • ISO/IEC 17025:2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories
    • Jay J. Schlickman (2003). ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management System Design. ARTECH House Inc. Norwood, MA 02062. ISBN No. 1-58053-526-7.
    • Kalia M. (2010). Food Quality Management (Incorporates ICAR recommended syllabus). Agrotech Publishing Academy, Udaipur. ISBN 978-81-8321-162-8.
    • Keen M., Brown V. A., and Dyball, R. (2005). Social learning in environmental management: towards a sustainable future. Routledge.
    • Lelieveld H., Holah J., and Napper D. (Eds.). (2014). Hygiene in food processing: principles and practice. Elsevier.
    • Marsden T., and Morley A. (Eds.). (2014). Sustainable food systems: building a new paradigm. Routledge.
    • McPherson R. A., and Pincus M. R. (2011). Henry’s clinical diagnosis and management by laboratory methods. Elsevier Health Sciences.
    • Michael E. and Deen P.E. (2010). Quality Manual and Quality Procedures for ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025: Assistance in Achievement of Accreditation.
    • Mortimore S. E. and Wallace C. A. (2015). HACCP: A Food Industry Briefing. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Motarjemi Y. and Huub Lelieveld (2013). Food Safety Management: A Practical Guide for the Food Industry. Acedemic Press, San Diego (USA). ISBN 978-0-12-381504-0.

    ———x——–

    FS- 612 Risk Analysis Concept and Regulatory Food Standards

     Objective

    To understand the concepts and procedures for risk assessment and analysis as well as legal aspects in food sector

    Theory

    Unit I

    Risk Analysis Concept in food chain: Definition and Terminology– Concept of Risk Analysis; Risk assessment -Hazard identification; Exposure assessment; Hazard characterization; Risk characterization; Risk management; Risk communication; Qualitative and Quantitative Risk assessment for pathogenic bacteria and their toxins; Microbiological risk profile: Concepts; Scope and Purpose; ICMSF ranking scheme of categorization of Hazards; Risk Ranking of Dairy Products; Risk Management Issues and Control Strategies for dairy and other food products.

    Unit II

    Risk Assessment of Food Pathogens: Growth and survival characteristics of pathogens – E. coli, Enterobacter sakazaki, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia enterocolitica, Streptococcus sp., Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, Brucella sp., Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens in dairy foods, their pathology of illness, mode of transmission, incidence of illness, virulence and infectivity; Risk assessment models for dose response and exposer assessment; Antimicrobial resistant in bacteria.

    Unit III

    Microbial Pathogenesis associated with foods: Current trends, incidence and surveillance of food borne diseases; Changing patterns in epidemiology, agricultural and food manufacturing practices, transmission and susceptibility; Food poisoning, food infections by colonization and adhesion factors, food intoxication and toxi-infections; structure and function of exotoxins, endotoxin and mycotoxins; Food borne pathogens implicated with human diseases, their sources, mechanism of pathogenesis and public health significance.

    Unit IV

    General Principles of food law/ Legislation: Definition of Food Legislation; General Food Law’; General Principles of Food Law; Integrated Food Law, Its Main Features and Functions; scope, provision, guidelines, rules, regulation and implementation; Duties and functions of the authority; Key Challenges for Speedy and Effective Implementation of Food Safety and Standard Act; Concept of appropriate level of protection (ALOP); food safety objectives (FSO); Understanding Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) and its working; codex standards for Food / food additives; Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)

    Unit V

    Food Quality and Safety Standards: Definition of Food Standards, Specification and guidelines; Microbiological quality and safety standards for foods with special reference to milk and milk products; need for shifting to risk based assessment of foods for microbiological quality & safety; sampling and test methods and aspects related to sampling and testing of packaged foods, freshly cooked foods, and foods that require refrigeration during storage and transport.

    Practicals

    • Testing of food products for Hygiene Standards – SPC, coliform, faecal Streptococci; MBRT, Yeast and mold counts as per FSS regulation and 3-class sampling plan.
    • Testing of food products for Safety Standards – coli, Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, B. cereus, S. aureus, Enterobacter sakazakii as per FSS regulation and 2-class sampling plan.
    • Checking the compliance of Dairy Foods –pasteurized milk, cream, butter, ice cream, dried products, indigenous dairy products, fermented milks as per FSS regulation.
    • Experiments on Exposer Assessment of different pathogens in food products at various stages in supply chain.
    • To establish food safety objectives (FSO) for different pathogens based on Dose Response Studies/ Analysis.

     Suggested Readings

    • Bhunia A. K. (2008). Foodborne Microbial Pathogens: Mechanisms and Pathogenesis. Purdue University West Lafayette, IN, USA.
    • Clive de W. B. and Peter J. M. (2002) Food Borne Pathogens, Hazards, Risk Analysis and Control. Wood Head Publishing In Food Science and Technology, Cambridge, UK.
    • Early R. (2012). Guide to quality management systems for the food industry. Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Food & Drug Administration (2004) Food Borne Pathogenic microorganisms and Natural toxins Handbook: The Bad Bug Book. International Medical Publishing, Inc., Mclean, Virginia. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/egi-bin/printall.egi.
    • Forsythe S. J. (2011). The microbiology of safe food. John Wiley & Sons.
    • FSANZ (2006). A risk profile of dairy products in Australia. www.foodstandards.gov.au/_…/DAR_P296_Dairy_PPPS_Attach_2%20_App%20_1_6.pdf
    • Hockling A. D. (2003) Food Borne Microorganisms of Public Health Significance. 6th Ed. AIFST (NSW Branch) Food Microbiology Group, Sydney.
    • ICMSF (2002) Microorganisms in Foods 7: Microbiological testing in food safety management. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
    • Jackson L. S., Knize M. G., & Morgan J. N. (Eds.). (2012). Impact of processing on food safety (Vol. 459). Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Marth E. H. and Steele J. M. (2001). Applied Dairy Microbiology. 2nd Ed. Marcel Dekker, Newyork, USA.
    • Phillips J. and Smith, D. F. (2013). Food, science, policy and regulation in the twentieth century: international and comparative perspectives (Vol. 10). Routledge.
    • Swinnen J. F. (Ed.). (2007). Global supply chains, standards and the poor: how the globalization of food systems and standards affects rural development and poverty. Cabi.
    • William H. S. and Michael P. D. (2009) Compendium of the Microbiological spoilage of food and Beverage. Springer Science. Heidelberg, London.

    ———x——–

     FS-613 Microbiology of Fluid Milk and Dairy Products

     Objective

    To impart current knowledge of basic and applied microbiological aspects of fluid milks and dairy products for improved quality and food safety.

    Unit I

    Common microbes in milk and their significance. Microflora of mastitis milk and its importance in dairy industry. Sources of microbial contamination of raw milk and their relative importance in influencing quality of milk during production, collection, transportation and storage. Clean milk production and antimicrobial systems in raw milk. Microbial changes in raw milk during long storage. Microbiological grading of raw milk.

     Unit II                                                                                           

    Microbiological aspects of processing techniques like: bactofugation, thermization, pasteurization, sterilization, boiling, UHT, non thermal processes (pulse field) and membrane filtration of milk.  Role of psychrotrophic, mesophillic, thermophilic and thermoduric bacteria in spoilage of processed milks, their sources and prevention. Heat induced damage in bacteria and role of resuscitation in recovery of injured microbial cells. Microbiological standards (BIS/ PFA) of heat treated fluid milks.

    Unit III

    Microbiological quality of dairy products; fat rich (cream and butter), frozen (ice cream), concentrated (evaporated and condensed milk), dried milks (roller and spray dried), infant dairy foods and legal standards. Factors affecting microbial quality of these products during processing, storage and distribution. Microbiological defects associated with these products and their control.

    Unit IV                                                                      

    Microbiological quality of traditional dairy products; heat desiccated (khoa, burfi, peda, kheer), acid coagulated (paneer, chhana, rasgulla), fermented (lassi, srikhand) and frozen (kulfi). Sources of microbial contaminants and their role in spoilage.  Importance of personnel and environmental hygiene on quality of traditional milk products. Microbiological standards for indigenous dairy foods.

    Unit V                                                

    Definition of food poisonings, food infections and toxi-infections, pathogens associated with fluid milks, dairy products and their public health significance. Sources of pathogens and their prevention. Importance of biofilms, their role in transmission of pathogens in dairy products and preventive strategies.

    Practicals

    • Grading of raw milk based on SPC, coliform and dye reduction tests.
    • Effect of different storage temperatures on microbiological quality of fluid milk
    • Tests for mastitic milk and brucellosis
    • Microbiological quality evaluation of cream and butter for yeasts & molds, lipolytic and proteolytic bacteria.
    • Detection of Enterobactersakazakii in infant dairy foods.
    • Microbial evaluation of Burfi and Peda for SPC, yeast and mould counts.
    • Detection of Bacillus cereus, Salmonella,Shigellaand coagulase positive staphylococci in milk powder
    • Evaluation of ice cream for coliforms and coli
    • Microbiological quality of Paneer
    • Enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic spores in condensed and sterilized milk.
    • Line testing for determining the source of contamination of dairy products.

     Suggested Readings

    1. Osei. 2017. Handbook of Dairy Microbiology. AGri-Horti Press
    2. Palmiro Poltronieri (Editor). 2017. Microbiology in Dairy Processing: Challenges and Opportunities John Wiley & Sons Inc.
    3. Barbaros Eozer. 2014. Dairy Microbiology and Biochemistry: Recent Developments. CRC Press, USA
    4. B A Law. 2012. Microbiology and Biochemistry of Cheese and Fermented Milks. Springer Publisher.
    5. Rhea Fernandes (Editor). 2009. Microbiology Handbook: Dairy Products. RSC Publishing

    Melanie Quin. 1989. Applied microbiology in the Dairy Industry. Hobsons Publishing PLC

     FS-614 Food Microbiology

     Objective

    To understand microbial behaviour in different food matrices and their public health signficance

    Unit I

    Food Borne Micro-Organisms: Morphology of food related bacteria, yeast, mould,virus and their classification; Factors affecting growth of microorganisms in food: intrinsic factors- water activity, pH and buffering capacity, redox potential, nutrient content, antimicrobial constituents; extrinsic factors- relative humidity, temperature, gaseous atmosphere.

    Unit II

    General Principles Underlying Food Spoilage and Diseases: Source of contamination, types of food spoilage-proteolysis, lipolysis, hydrolytic rancidity etc.; Food Poisoning, food infection, intoxication; Food borne bacterial diseases;causative agents and sources, symptoms and prevention of Staphylococcal food poisoning, botulism, salmonellosis, Bacillus infection, E.coli etc. Food borne fungal diseases-ergotism, Aflatoxins; Food borne viral diseases-Hepatitis, Polio; Food born protozoal diseases – Amoebiasis.

    Unit III

    Microbiology of Processed Fruits, Vegetables, Cereals, Egg, Meat & Fish Products: Source of contamination; types of spoilage of raw and processed fruits and vegetables; micro-flora in cereal grains, flour, bread cake and pasta; spoilage of bread, cake and cereal products; micro-flora of egg, fish and meat, spoilage of egg, fish raw and canned meat; factors affecting growth and preservative principle of different products; microbial defects and their control measure.

    Unit IV

    Microbiology of Milk and Milk Products: Microorganisms associated with milk; source of contamination ; micro-environment of raw, pasteurized, sterilized milk, cream, butter, khoa, cheese, sweetmeats, canned foods and dried products; factors affecting growth and preservative principle of dairy products; Microbial defects and their control measure.

    Unit V

    Beneficial Microorganisms in Food Fermentation: Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Acetic acid bacteria, Propionic acid bacteria, Bifidobacteria in food fermentation; Dairy starter, preservation techniques, DVS preparation; role of starters in fermented food preparation-Dahi, Yoghurt,Bread, Wine, Cheese, sauerkraut etc.

    Unit VI

    Food preservation: Bio-preservation using microbial metabolites – Organic acid, Bacteriocins and enzymes. active packaging and antimicrobial packaging (AMP), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), Hurdle concept; Alternate methods for controlling spoilage of foods: High Pressure Processing, Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, Ultrasonic Food Processing, Ohmic Heating of Foods, Intense Pulse Light, Plasma Light, Oscillating Magnetic Fields (OMF)

    Practicals

    • Identification of microorganism –Bacteria, Yeast, mould,
    • Simple staining, grams staining and hanging drop preparation.
    • Microbiological examination of Pasteurised Butter;Ice cream and Dried products.
    • Microbiological examination of fruits and vegetables
    • Microbiological examination of bread and cake
    • Microbiological examination of egg.
    • Microbiological examination of canned foods.
    • Production of fermented foods – Dahi, yoghurt, bread, sauerkraut.
    • Activity and purity test for dairy starters.
    • Production of bacteriocin and their role in bio-preservation of foods – paneer, khoa etc.
    • Freeze drying of dairy starters /DVS culture.

     Suggested Readings

    • Adams M. R. and Moss M. O. (2008). Food Microbiology. 3rd Ed. RSC Publisher, Cambridge, UK.
    • Banwart G. (2012). Basic food microbiology. Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Cunningham F. (Ed.). (2012). Microbiology of poultry meat products. Elsevier.
    • De Silva N., Taniwaki M. H., Junqueira V. C., Silveira N., do Nascimento M. D. S. and Gomes R. A. R. (2012). Microbiological examination methods of food and water: a laboratory manual. CRC Press.
    • Forsythe S. J. (2011). The Microbiology of safe food. John Wiley & Sons.
    • Frances P. D and Keith ITO (2001). Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. 4th Ed. American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington DC, USA.
    • Gurtler J. B., Doyle M. P. and Kornacki J. L. (2014). The Microbiological Safety of Low Water Activity Foods and Spices. Springer.
    • Hayes R. (2013). Food microbiology and hygiene. Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Hoover D. G. and Steenson L. R. (Eds.). (2014). Bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria. Academic Press.
    • Hwang C. A. and Fan X. (2015). Processing, Quality and Safety of Irradiated and High Pressure-Processed Meat and Seafood Products. In Minimally Processed Foods (pp. 251- 278). Springer International Publishing.
    • Jay J. M. (2012). Modern food microbiology. Springer.
    • Owens J. D. (Ed.). (2014). Indigenous Fermented Foods of Southeast Asia. CRC Press.
    • Patel P. (Ed.). (2012). Rapid analysis techniques in food microbiology. Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Ray B. and Bhunia A. (2012). Fundamental Food Microbiology, 5th CRC Press.
    • Tokuşoğlu Ö. and Swanson B. G. (Eds.). (2014). Improving food quality with novel food processing technologies. CRC Press.
    • William H. S. (2009). Compendium of the Microbiological Spoilage of Foods and Beverages. Springer

    ———x——–

    FS-621 Microbiological Quality Assurance

     Objective

    To impart knowledge on requirements for establishment of quality assurance facilities in food industry

    Theory

    Unit I

    Importance of Microbiological Quality and Safety Assurance System in Dairy Industry: Principles of Quality and Safety Management Systems; Process approach based QMS (ISO-9001) and applications of HACCP system in dairy industry; TQM tools and techniques including Six sigma, 5S principle, kaizen;  Plant hygiene and sanitation in dairy industry.

    Unit II

    General principles for the establishment and application of microbiological criteria for dairy foods: Definition, purpose and components of Microbiological criteria; Mandatory and advisory criteria; Sampling methods; Two and three class attributes for sampling plan (ICMSF); Establishment of microbiological standards, guidelines and specifications for different milk and milk products recommended by ICMSF, Codex, PFA, BIS.

    Unit III

    Enumeration and detection of indicator organisms and dairy pathogens: Indicator Organisms; Selection criteria for their use as quality and safety indicators; Conventional and rapid detection methods including commercial detection kits for indicator organisms and pathogenic bacteria in milk and milk products.

    Unit IV

    Microbial bio-sensor for monitoring pathogens and non-microbial contaminants in dairy foods: Definition, history, basic characteristics, classification and components of microbial bio-sensors; Detector system i.e. Electrochemical; Optical; Mechanical devices; Application of microbial bio-sensor in monitoring pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic residues andaflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products.

    Unit V

    Establishment and accreditation of QA Lab in dairy processing unit: Introductory information on Quality assurance lab in dairy processing unit; Bio-safety definition, principles and safety levels; Standard microbiological practices, safety equipment (primary barrier), facility design (secondary barrier), medical surveillance criteria and biological waste disposal; FDA requirements for establishing biosafety laboratory in dairy industry and its accreditation as per ISO.

    Practicals

    • Conventional and rapid techniques for microbiological evaluation of dairy products for Aerobic plate count, Yeast & Mold Count, Psychrotropic, Thermoduric and Thermophilic count, Spore count, Dye reduction test, Direct Microscopic Count, Thermotolerant Coliform and Enterobacteriaceae
    • Bacteriological analysis of dairy water for Aerobic plate counts and Coliform counts (MPN).
    • Detection of faecal and non–faecal coliform and faecal streptococci in dairy plant.
    • Detection of antibiotic residues, aflatoxin M1 in milk using biosensor based micro-techniques.
    • Detection and enumeration of aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes in dairy products.
    • Evaluation of HACCP system in the preparation of different milk and milk products.
    • Evaluation of common sanitizing agents in dairy plant by capacity and suspension test.
    • Microbiological tests for assessing equipments and personnel hygiene by rinse and swab techniques.

     Suggested readings

    • Brown M Stringer Microbiological, 2002. Risk Assessment in Food Processing. Woodhead Publishing 1st Edition
    • Patel P. (Ed.). (2012). Rapid analysis techniques in food microbiology. Springer Science & Business Media.
    • Food Microbiology Laboratory, (2004) Lynne McLands Borough and published by CRC Press, USA
    • Bacterial Pathogenesis (1st edition, 2017) edited by Nordenfelt, Pontus, Collin, Mattias and published by Springer
    • Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis. 2012. HACCP and ISO 22000: Application to Foods of Animal Origin (Institute of Food Science and Technology Series). Wiley-Blackwell
    • Onsando Osiemo. 2012. Food Safety Standards in International Trade: The Case of the EU and the COMESA. Routledge Publisher

    FS-625 Research Techniques in Dairy Microbiology

     Objective

    To impart knowledge and skills related to microbiological analytical systems in microbiology and related sciences

     Theory

    Unit I 

    Microscopy: principles, design and functions of bright field, dark field, phase contrast and fluorescence microscope; principle, design and application of transmission and scanning electron microscopes for the study of sub-cellular organization and microstructure of dairy foods

    Unit II 

    Techniques for protein analysis and other molecular separation: electrophoresis, chromatography, ultracentrifugation; Enzyme analyses and substrate determination methods

    Unit III 

    Molecular Biology Techniques for nucleic acid analysis: amplification, investigation of mutations and gene expression

    Unit IV

    Aerobic and Anaerobic culturing techniques for isolation of obligate and facultative organisms

    Unit V 

    Use of animal models in toxicity studies

    Practical

    • Familiarization with the construction and design of a compound microscope; use of light microscope accessories; microscopic analysis of different types of bacteria by bright field and dark field; phase contrast and fluorescence microscopes
    • Disruption of bacterial cells by ultra-sonification
    • Demonstration of chromatographic techniques
    • Demonstration of aerobic and anaerobic culturing techniques
    • Demonstration of use of animal models in toxicity studies,
    • Demonstration of PCR technique as a tool for identification and characterization of

    microorganism

     Suggested Readings

    • Douglas B. Murphy.2001.Fundamentals of light microscopy and electronic imaging, Wiley-Liss, inc., USA.
    • John F. T. Spencer,& Allicia L Ragout Leo M. L. Nollet, Fidel Toldra. 2013. Food analysis by HPLC, Third edition, CRC press, Taylor and Francis group, Florida, USA.
    • Leo M. L. Nollet, Fidel Toldra. 2013. Food analysis by HPLC, Third edition, CRC press, Taylor and Francis group, Florida, USA.
    • A. Nasser Hajibagheri.1999. Electron microscopy methods and protocols, methods in molecular biology series, # 117.Humana Press Inc., Totowa, New Jersey, USA.

     FS-626 Starter Cultures and Fermented Dairy Products

     Objective

    To familiarize the students with the starter organisms, their metabolism and genetics; different types of starters, propagation, preservation and applications of starters.

    Theory

     Unit I

    Taxonomy and characteristics of starter cultures: Taxonomy and natural habitat of starter organisms; characteristics of starter organisms: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifdobacterium Enterococcus, Propionibacterium, Brevibacterium, yeasts and molds. Desirable properties of lactic acid bacteria for different fermented milk products.

    Unit II

    Metabolism and genetics of starter cultures: Carbohydrate, citrate and protein metabolism: lactose, galactose and glucose metabolism- transport of sugars across the cell boundaries, homolactic and heterolactic fermentation, other pathways of sugar metabolism, citrate transport and metabolism formation of flavouring agents from citrate fermentation, proteolytic systems and protein metabolism in lactic acid bacteria; Genetics of starter bacteria: plasmids and plasmid instability; industrially significant genes; genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through transduction; conjugation; protoplast transformation; electroporation and chromosomal integration, transposons and insertion sequences.

    Unit III

    Technology of starter cultures: Classification of starters; Single, mixed and multiple strain, mesophillic and thermophillic starter cultures; propagation and preservation of starter cultures; commercial starter preparations: concentrated and super concentrated starters; production systems for bulk cultures: Lewis, Jones and Tetra-pack systems; growth media: nutritional requirements of lactic acid bacteria, growth media formulations; PIM/PRM, pH control during culturing- external and internal pH control systems; preservation of bulk starter cultures- frozen and freeze dried, spray dried cultures; direct vat starter cultures

     Unit IV

    Starter failure and inhibition: Growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria by antibiotics, bacteriocins; bacteriophages, cleaning and sanitizing agents and naturally occurring antimicrobial systems in raw milk; sources, types and characteristics of phages associated with starters, morphology an taxonomy, phage host interaction, prevention and control of phages during starter handling and fermented milk products manufacturing, mechanisms of phage resistance in lactic acid bacteria, inhibitory substances produces by lactic acid bacteria.

    Unit V

    Microbiology of fermented dairy products: Classification of fermented milks: lactic, yeast-lactic, mold-lactic fermented milk products; role of starter cultures in manufacturing of Dahi, Lassi, Yoghurt, acidophilus milk, cultured buttermilk, Koumiss, Kefir and chesses: microbiology of fresh and ripened cheeses, accelerated cheese ripening; Microbiological spoilage  and safety of fermented  dairy products; concepts of   probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, bioactive milk peptides and their application  in value addition in fermented dairy products.

     Practical

    • Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from fermented milks products.
    • Examination of purity and activity of starter cultures.
    • Preservation of starter cultures by freeze drying and other methods.
    • Preparation of concentrated starters and quality evaluation.
    • Inhibition of starters by antibiotic residues and other inhibitors.
    • Production of bacteriocine by lactic acid bacteria.
    • Preparation and quality evaluation of dahi, lassi, yoghurt and kefir
    • Examinations of microbial changes during ripening of cheddar cheese

     Suggested Readings

    • Wood BJ & Warner PJ. (Eds.). 2003. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Springer- Verlag.
    • Marth EH and Steele JL Applied Dairy Microbiology.Marcel Deker Inn. New York.
    • Prajapati, J. B. and Behare, P. V. (2018). Textbook of Dairy Microbiology: Microbiology of Starter Culture Page no. 147-183. Published by Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture, ICAR, ISBN: 978-81-7164-182-6.
    • Barbara Speranza, Antonio Bevilacqua, Maria Rosaria Corbo and Milna Sinigaglia (2017). Starter Cultures in Food Production. Wiley Black Well, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, UK.
    • M. T. El-Mansi, C. F. A. Bryce, Arnold L. Demain, A.R. Allman (Edited) (2012) Fermentation Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition CRC.
    • Paul McSweeney Patrick Fox Paul Cotter David Everett (eds.) (2017). Cheese – Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, 4th Academic Press.